Charles Darwin… Charles Lyell… Charles Sherrington… Christiaan Huygens… Scientists › Multiposts

Biographies of Famous Scientists

Biographies of Famous Scientists, his life and achievements

Biographies of Famous Scientists:

  1. Who is Charles Darwin: Biography
  2. Who is Charles Lyell: Biography
  3. Who is Charles Sherrington: Biography
  4. Who is Christiaan Huygens: Biography
  5. Who is Christiane Nusslein-Volhard: Biography
  6. Who is Clarence Birdseye: Biography
  7. Who is Claude Bernard: Biography
  8. Who is Claude Levi-Strauss: Biography
  9. Who is Clyde Tombaugh: Biography
  10. Who is Daniel Bernoulli: Biography
  11. Who is David Bohm: Biography
  12. Who is Dian Fossey: Biography
  13. Who is Dorothy Hodgkin: Biography
  14. Who is Edward Osborne Wilson: Biography
  15. Who is Edmund Halley: Biography
  16. Who is Edward Jenner: Biography

Who is Charles Darwin: Biography

Charles Darwin, widely considered as one of the greatest and most revolutionizing scientists in history, was the British naturalist who formulated the theory of evolution. Pre-Darwin, it was thought that each species of life on earth came individually and that none had ever changed its form. He confuted this notion and demonstrated from his research that evolution is the law of nature and all living things on earth have descended from common ancestors who lived millions of years ago. He proved that animals and plants have evolved in an orderly manner and keep on evolving even today.

Early Life:

Born at Shrewsbury in 1809, Darwin was raised by his eldest sister from the tender age of eight. Young Darwin had a passion for gathering up even insects and minerals and he used to experiment with them. When Darwin was 16, he joined Edinburg University to study medicine. However, he was too gentle and tender to become a proper physician. Anatomy, in particular, sickened him. He hated the surgical operations, because they had to be performed without any anesthetics at that time. This made Darwin a great failure as a medical student.
Darwin said goodbye to Edinburg in 1828 and sought admission in Cambridge to study Theology. There, he also disregarded his studies and was more interested in beetles than theology. He was lucky to attain his degree anyhow. At Cambridge, he managed to make valuable friends, even befriending the professors of botany and geology.

Contributions and Achievements:

Darwin got his big break in 18A naturalist was needed to travel along on a scientific expedition – a voyage around the world in the brigantine HMBS Beagle under the supervision of Captain Fits Roy. Luckily, some of his Cambridge fellows also recommended him for the place. The voyage took around five years.
Throughout this voyage, Darwin collected bones of extinct animals. He was curious about the relationship between the extinct animals and the existing ones. The unusual marine iguana, the tortoises and the finches on the Galapagos Islands in the pacific made him perplexed, since similar, yet rather distinct, forms of the same animals were found on separate islands. These observations led to his legendary ideas on evolution.
After the return, Darwin moved to London for a while and compiled an account of his travels. Darwin got married to his cousin Emma Wedgowood in 18The coupled moved to Downe House in Kent in 18There, Darwin got a letter from the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace, who had made similar observations about evolution separately. A collaborative report by Darwin and Wallace was published in 18Darwin publicized the theory of evolution in his famous book, “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection”, in 18The book, which asserted that all the varied forms of life on earth could, in the course of time, have evolved from a common ancestry, was a huge success. Darwin also commented that in the struggle for life, only the ‘fittest’ creatures would survive while others fail.
The book became controversial due to its conflict with the religious belief about the creation of the world. However, in later years, it was embraced by all biologists. Darwin’s another book, “The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication”, came out in 18It is considered to be his second most significant work. The book maintains that man, by selective breeding, could make rather different breeds of pigeons, dogs, and some species of plants also. His work also included “The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects”, “Insectivorous Plants”, “The Power of Movement in Plants”, “Descent of Man”, and “The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms”.

Later Life and Death:

Charles Darwin died at 74 and he was buried in Westminster Abbey, fairly near to the tomb of Sir Issac Newton. Out of his 10 children, of whom seven survived him, four became prominent scientists. Three of his sons went on to become fellows of the Royal Society, just like their legendary father.

Who is Charles Lyell: Biography

Sir Charles Lyell was the most famous lawyer and geologist of his time. One of the most important British scientists in history, Lyell wrote “Principles of Geology”, a landmark work in geology that explores James Hutton’s doctrine of uniformitarianism.

Early Life and Education:

Born at Kinnordy, Scotland to a botanist father who possessed considerable literary tastes, Charles Lyell graduated from Oxford in 1821, and joined the bar in 18He soon realized that his ambitions were more towards science, so, in 1827, he finally chose geology over the law.

Contributions and Achievements:

The first volume of his legendary book “Principles of Geology” was published in 18The third and last volume was published three years later. It is considered to be a work of synthesis, supported by his own personal observations on his travels.
Lyell’s primary belief was that all the the past changes of the earth can be detailed by the forces now acting. The notion became the fundamental basis of modern geology. It is very difficult to explain how odd it appeared at that time.
His another work, “Antiquity of Man”, was published in 1863, and discussed the proofs of the long existence of human beings on the earth. Lyell’s geological approach tends to be an assessment of evolutionism in the wider sense. He was one the earliest men to embrace Darwin’s theory of natural selection in biology.
Lyell’s geological contributions ranged from volcanoes and geological dynamics through stratigraphy, paleontology, and glaciology to subjects that would now be considered as parts of prehistoric archaeology and paleoanthropology.

Later Life and Death:

In 1866, Charles Lyell was made a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Lyell died on February 22, 18He was 77 years old. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Who is Charles Sherrington: Biography

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington is a notable neurophysiologist, bacteriologist, histologist and pathologist. His discovery of the different functions that neurons played gave him and his colleague, Edgar Douglas Adrian, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is also known as the one who coined the terms “synapse” and “neurons”.

Early Life and Education

Charles Scott Sherrington was born in Islington, London on November 27, 1857 to James Norton Sherrington, a physician, and Ann Brookes Thurtell. His father died when he was still a child, and his mother eventually remarried. His stepfather, Dr. Caleb Rose, was both a physician and an archaeologist. Rose’s enthusiasm over Norwich School’s English artists became influential in Charles’s life, proof of which is a passion for art that he maintained for the rest of his life. A lot of intellectuals came by their house often as well, which molded Charles’s sense of curiosity. In fact, Charles had already gone through the book “Elements of Physiology” by Johannes Muller even before he started studying.
In 1871, Charles started attending the Ipswich School where the famous English poet Thomas Ashe worked. He inspired Charles to form an interest in travelling and an appreciation for the classics. Charles proved to be very athletic and played football with the Ipswich Town Football Club. He would also play rugby for St. Thomas later on, and would be part of Oxford’s rowing team.
In 1876, Charles attended St. Thomas’s Hospital and started studying medicine. By 1878, he had passed the Royal College of Surgeons’ primary examination. He also passed for a fellowship in the same institution a year after that. He started pursuing physiology in Cambridge under Sir Michael Foster in 1879 after staying in Edinburgh for a brief period of time. Sir Michael Foster is now known as the “Father of British Physiology”, proof that Charles was truly trained by the best. He then attended Gonville and Caius College in 1880, where he got top marks in human anatomy, botany and physiology.

Most Notable Contributions

It was in 1881 that Sherrington’s path in the field of medicine and the sciences was cemented. During a medical congress that was held in London, Sir Michael Foster gave a talk on the study and research that was being done by Sir Charles Bell and other experts in England and in other places around Europe. This experimental research aimed to explain and give a clearer view of the real functions of nerves. This medical congress led to a number of controversies, the biggest of which was about the effects of the excisions being done on parts of the brain cortex of monkeys and dogs in experiments performed by Friedrich Goltz and David Ferrier, who had opposing views on the issue. Goltz believed that there were no localized functions as far as the cortex is concerned, showing dogs whose parts of brains have been removed. Ferrier, who was someone Sherrington greatly admired, argued that there was and used proof of a hemiplegic monkey who became half-paralyzed after a cerebral lesion was done.
Sherrington, as a protégé of one of his college tutors, John Newport Langley, was part of the team who tried to investigate the opposing opinions. They then published their findings in 18This was how Sherrington was finally introduced to the world of neurology, the field he was to contribute greatly to in the years to come. He was later on given the chance to work with Goltz, who also became a positive influence in his career.
In 1885, Cambridge University, together with the Association for Research in Medicine and the Royal Society of London, organized a team to travel to Spain and investigate the claims of a Spanish physician. This was a period of time when there were outbreaks of Asiatic cholera, and the physician claims that he had come up with a vaccine that fought the disease. Chosen to become part of the team were Charles Sherrington, J. Graham Brown, and C.S. Roy. Sherrington was immediately skeptical upon hearing of the vaccine. After the investigation, their report greatly discredited what the Spaniard was claiming.
In the same year, Sherrington was given the chance to travel to Berlin to seek help from Rudolf Virchow in studying the specimens of cholera that he had brought home from Spain. He was eventually sent to Robert Koch where he learned more about technique and bacteriology. He stayed with Koch for a year, after which he had greatly expanded his knowledge in physiology, histology, morphology and pathology. With his knowledge, he was again chosen to investigate another cholera outbreak, this time in Italy. This was where he formed an even greater addiction for rare books.
In 1932, Sherrington was awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the different functions on neurons. He shared this award with Edgar Douglas Adrian, his colleague and a very good friend. Sherrington was also recognized as the person who coined the terms “neuron” and “synapse”.

Other Contributions and Achievements

Sherrington became the superintendent for the University of London’s Brown Institute for Advanced Physiological and Pathological Research. Because of the large facility, Sherrington was able to work on bigger primates. This was where he discovered that it was the body’s muscle spindles that start the reflex to stretch.
It was in 1895 that Sherrington was appointed as a full professor for the first time. He became Holt Professor of Physiology and continued to work on his research about reciprocal innervations and reflexes. This also signaled the end of his work in pathology.
Sherrington got his dream of working at Oxford University in 19He was given the Waynflete Chair of Physiology and was given the chance to teach and train some of the institution’s finest scholars. His students include Nobel laureates Ragnar Granit, Sir John Eccles and Howard Florey, as well as the American pioneer in brain surgery, Harvey Williams Cushing.
Sherrington retired from Oxford in 1936 and moved back to Ipswich. He was the Ipswitch Museum’s President until his death.
He died of heart failure in March 4, 1952.

Who is Christiaan Huygens: Biography

Christiaan Huygens was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer who formulated the wave theory of light. He also discovered the pendulum clock, centrifugal force and the true shape of the rings of Saturn (as well as its moon, Titan). Huygens is credited as the first theoretical physicist to use formulae in physics.

Early Life and Education:

Born in 1629 to a poet father, Constantijn Huygens, who also worked for the Princes of Orange, Christiaan Huygens studied law in Leiden and Brenda. He soon found out that he was more interested in mathematics, physics and astronomy. As a kid, Huygens loved to experiment with windmills and other machines and to watch the ripples produced by throwing a stone into water.
Huygens was already in contact with leading scholars of the time, even at an early age. Mersenne, the famous French polymath, wrote to his father that his child had the potential to “even surpass Archimedes”.

Contributions and Achievements:

Christiaan Huygens made many extraordinary contributions in diverse fields. His efforts in mathematics included his work regarding squaring the circle. When it came to physics, in addition to his landmark Huygens–Fresnel principle, he extensively researched free fall, pendulum motion and the pendulum clock. Huygens also improved sea clocks, which proved to be very helpful in finding out the position of ships at sea.
As a fan of Descartes, Huygens preferred to carry out new experiments himself for observing and formulating laws. Christiaan started to grind lenses for microscopes and astronomical telescopes. During one of these experiments, he found out the ring of Saturn, and also the Titan, the first moon of a planet ever to be detected.
Huygens was honored with a doctorate in 16In 1666, he was made the first director of the Royal Academy of Science.

Later Life and Death:

Christiaan Huygens was seriously ill in the last five years of his life. He died on July 8, 16He was 66 years old. Huygens was buried in Grote Kerk.

Who is Christiane Nusslein-Volhard: Biography

The German biologist, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard is renowned for her embryonic development of fruit flies. Her contribution earned her the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with American geneticists Eric Wieschaus and Edward B. Lewis. In the Nobel Banquet Speech held on 10 Dec 1995, she said:“The three of us have worked on the development of the small and totally harmless fruit fly, Drosophila. This animal has been extremely cooperative in our hands – and has revealed to us some of its innermost secrets and tricks for developing from a single celled egg to a complex living being of great beauty and harmony.… None of us expected that our work would be so successful or that our findings would ever have relevance to medicine.”
In 1986, she was honored with the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, which is the top credit awarded in German research. She also won the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 19Since 2001 she has been member of the Nationaler Ethikrat (National Ethics Council of Germany) for the ethical assessment of new developments in the life sciences and their influence on the individual and society.
Oxford University awarded her an Honorary Doctor of Science degree during June 2005.

Early Life, Career and Contribution:

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard was born on October 20, 1942, in Magdeburg,Germany. She is the daughter of Rolf Volhard, an architect, and Brigitte Volhard, a musician and painter. She completed her degrees in biology, physics, and chemistry from Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-University in 1964, a diploma in biochemistry (1968) and a doctorate in biology and genetics (1973) from Eberhard-Karl University of Tubingen. Nüsslein-Volhard was married briefly as a young woman and never had any children.
After finishing her postdoctoral fellowships in Basel, Switzerland, and Freiburg, Germany, she accepted her first independent research position at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany began her collaboration with Wieschaus in the late 1970’s at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg. In 1981, she returned to Tübingen, where since 1985 she has served as director of the genetics division of the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology.
Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard chose the fruit fly because of its amazingly rapid embryonic development. Together they designed a new genetic tool, saturation mutagenesis, which involved mutating adult fly genes and observing the effects on their offspring. Using a dual microscope, which permitted them to examine one specimen at the same time, the collaborators eventually identified, among about 20,000 genes in the fly’s chromosomes, approximately 5,000 genes important to early development and 139 genes essential to it. They also acknowledged three types of fruit fly genes that generate the blueprint for the insect’s body plan. In awarding the prize to the collaborator, the Nobel Assembly predicted that their discoveries would “explain congenital malformations in man.”
By the late 1990’s her studies of zebra fish mutants had founded a system for studying the process of blood creation and provided imperative insights into human disease.

Who is Clarence Birdseye: Biography

For people who thank the heavens every day for the convenience that is frozen foods, you may also want to thank the man behind the invention. His name is Clarence Frank Birdseye II and he just happens to be the founder of the modern frozen food industry. So every time you take that bag of frozen veggies or other frozen food from the icebox, you should give a little thanks to Birdseye as well. Without him, you would not be enjoying the convenience of frozen foods.

Who is Clarence Birdseye?

Clarence Birdseye was an American inventor, naturalist, and entrepreneur. He made one of the biggest innovations and contributions to the food industry when he found a way to flash-freeze food. He did this all on his own and he is the man responsible for the flash-freezing method that is still used up to this day. His is one invention that will stick around for ages which is proof of how useful it is.

His Early Years

Clarence Birdseye was born on December 9, 1886 in Brooklyn, NY. His parents were Ada Jane Underwood and Clarence Frank Birdseye I. he was the 6th of 9 other kids. He was a student at Amherst College but only for a brief amount of time as he dropped out around the year 1908 although the exact date is unclear. It wasn’t because he was mentally slow by any means but he and his family really did not have the funds for college. He moved out west to work for the USDA.
He also began a career working as a taxidermist. He got a job in Arizona and New Mexico and his title was “assistant naturalist”. This job required him to kill coyotes. He also worked with entomologist Willard Von Orsdel King in 1910 and 19On the job, Birdseye would catch about several hundred small mammals and King would remove ticks from them for research purposes. This was how he found out that ticks were the cause of the Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.
He moved on to another field assignment in 1912 and kept the spot until 19This job took him to Labrador in Canada (then known as Dominion of Newfoundland). This was where he really developed an interest in preserving and freezing food (most especially fast freezing). He had some dealings with the Inuit and they taught him how to ice fish underneath very thick ice layers. Given the -40C weather, he found that the fish was iced almost in an instant and tasted fresh when thawed. He thought of the frozen food served in New York and knew that they were of poor quality compared to the frozen fish enjoyed by folks in Labrador and got the idea of applying his new found knowledge in starting a lucrative business. His records from that time period are held in the Special Collections section in Amherst College.

His Flash-freezing Method

Back in the day, the freezing method they used was commonly performed at higher temperatures which and this was how freezing was brought about. However, freezing was done at a slower rate which meant that ice crystals were given time to grow. It is now common knowledge that using the fast freezing method results in smaller ice crystals which means that less damage is brought to the tissues of the food. When using the slow freezing methods on food, fluids leak from the cells and this causes tissues to be damaged by the crystals. This is why food that is frozen using the slow freezing method often has a mushy or dry feel to it. Birdseye changed all that and saved the people from mushy and dry textured food for the years to come.
In the year 1922, he began a series of fish-freezing studies at the Clothel Refrigerating Company. He established his own company soon after and called it Birdseye Seafoods Inc. what they did was they froze fish fillets using chilled air that was as cold as -43C. Two years later, in 1924, his company filed bankruptcy as there was a lack of consumer interest in their product but that did not stop him. In that same year, he came up with a brand new process that made for commercially viable quick-freezing which involved packing fish inside cartons then putting them between two refrigerated surfaces under pressure to free the food. With this new invention he also started a new company which he called General Seafood Corporation.

Development of His Invention

In the year 1925, his new company moved to Gloucester in Massachusetts where he made use of his new invention. He called it the double belt freezer where brine was used to chill a couple of stainless steel belts that carried packaged fish so they froze so much more quickly. He applied for a patent for his invention and it was given the US Patent #1,773,079 and this marked the very beginning of a flourishing frozen foods industry.
He was a man of vision so he created other machines and took out patents on them as well. These new machines he patented cooled foods even more quickly so that only the smallest ice crystals formed in the food and cell membranes did not endure any damage. In 1927, he decided to extend the process past fish and started flash-freezing other food items as well. That year, they also froze vegetables, chicken, meat, and fruits.
Birdseye didn’t keep the company but sold it to Goldman Sachs and Postum Company instead. Together with the patents, he got paid around $22 million which was a massive amount at that time. His company was eventually given the name General Foods Corp. and that founded the Birds Eye Frozen Food Company. Clarence Birdseye wasn’t completely out of the picture since he still worked for the company and never really stopped coming up with newer and better frozen food technology.

His Death

He died on 7 October 1956 at the Gramercy Park Hotel at His cause of death was a heart attack. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered at sea just off the area in Gloucester in MA.

Who is Claude Bernard: Biography

Claude Bernard was an eminent French physiologist, noted for his groundbreaking research regarding the function of the pancreas, the liver and the vasomotor nerves. Widely credited as one of the founders of experimental medicine, he played a vital role in laying down the basic rules of experimentation in the life sciences.

Early Life and Education:

Born in Saint-Julien, a small village near Villefranche-sur-Saône in France in 1813, Claude Bernard studied in the Jesuit school.

Contributions and Achievements:

Claude Bernard worked at the laboratory of Francois Magendie at the Collège de France in 1811, where he wrote his legendary work “The constancy of the internal environment is the condition for a free and independent life”, which laid the groundwork for modern homeostasis by presenting the concept of the internal environment of the organism. He was the one of the earliest physilogists to explain the role of the pancreas in digestion, as well as the glycogenic function of the liver. Bernard also extensively worked on the regulation of the blood supply by the vasomotor nerves.
Bernard advocated that medical knowledge, similar to other genres of scientific knowledge, has room for systematic experiments. He formulated the principle of scientific determinism, which states that identical experiments should produce identical results. His another book, “Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine” (1865) virtually brought about the use of animal testing.

Later Life and Death:

Claude Bernard was appointed a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 18He died in Paris on February 10, 18Bernard was the first person in France to be given a public funeral. He was 64 years old.

Who is Claude Levi-Strauss: Biography

Claude Levi-Strauss was a French social anthropologist and a leading exponent of structuralism. Often known as “the “father of modern anthropology”, he revolutionized the world of social anthropology by implementing the methods of structuralist analysis developed by Saussuro to the field of cultural relations.

Early Life and Education:

Born in Brussels, Belgium in 1908 to French parents, Claude Levi-Strauss spent his childhood in Paris. He studied philosophy and law at the University of Paris and became a secondary school teacher. He was appointed the professor of sociology at the University of São Paulo, Brazil in 1934, where he conducted his field research on the Indians of Brazil. He also taught at the New School, the University of Paris and the Collège de France.

Contributions and Achievements:

During his stay at the New School for Social Research in the 1940s, the famous Russian formalist Roman Jakobson introduced Claude Levi-Strauss to the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, the legendary Swiss linguist. He foresaw the importance of semiology for cultural analysis and studied the coded relations related to social interactions. He shared his findings in such works as “The Elementary Structures of Kinship” (1949), “Tristes Tropiques” (1955), “Structural Anthropology” (1958), “The Savage Mind” (1962), “Mythologiques” (4 volumes; 1964-72) and “The Raw and the Cooked” (1970).
Levi-Strauss advocated that language preconditioned human culture, as evidenced in the “symbolic order” of religious and social life and aesthetics. He believed that cultural patterning is influenced by the huge reservoir of unconscious and universal structures of mind.
The most important contribution made by Levi-Strauss during his anthropological investigations was the difference between “hot” and “cold” societies. Cultures in Western Europe that altered significantly and remained open to greatly divergent influences were termed as “hot”, while the cultures that changed marginally over time were “cold”. An ideal example of a “cold” society was said to be in the Amazon Indians. He suggested a savage mind and a “civilized” mind shared the same structure and the human characteristics are the same in every region of the world.

Later Life and Death:

Claude Levi-Strauss was appointed the member of the Académie Française in 2008, and one year later, the Dean of the Académie in 20He died on October 30, 20Levi-Strauss was 100 years old. He was buried in the village of Lignerolles, France.

Who is Clyde Tombaugh: Biography

Clyde Tombaugh discovered the dwarf planet Pluto in 19He also discovered a number of asteroids, and he was one of the supporters of further research to better understand UFOs or unidentified flying objects.

Early Life and Educational Background

Clyde William Tombaugh was born on the 4th of February in 1906 in Streator, Illinois. A few years later his family had to move to Burdett, Kansas. This was around the same time he was planning to attend college. Unfortunately, his plan to go to college had to be postponed because a hailstorm ruined his family’s crops.
Not wanting to be idle, Clyde built his own telescopes using different mirrors and lenses. This was in 1926, and he even sent drawings of Mars and Jupiter to the Lowell Observatory. This opened an opportunity for him to work there from 1929 up to 19His creation of his very first telescope when he was just 20 years old set him on the path of discovering the very first dwarf planet known to man.
In the interim, Clyde was able to earn his bachelor’s as well as master’s degrees in astronomy in the years 1936 and 1938 from the University of Kansas.


He worked at the Lowell Observatory for 14 years, having impressed the astronomers who were working there with his drawings of Mars and Jupiter. It was his discovery of Pluto on the 18th of February, 1930 that earned him a permanent place in the roster of prominent astronomers. He was able to make this discovery even before he finished any of his degrees!
He was able to make this discovery of Pluto when he had been given the task to perform a systematic search for Planet X—a trans-Neptunian planet which had been predicted by William Pickering and Percival Lowell. Clyde achieved this by using the 13-inch astrograph of the observatory to take pictures of the same area of the sky from different nights. Using a blink comparator, one would see a potential planet by shifting between two frames. Stars would be stationary while a planet will jump from one position to another.
His subsequent observation led to the confirmation that this had been Planet X as predicted by the other two astronomers, and that it also had an orbit which lay past Neptune’s. Interestingly, the planet’s name had been suggested by the 11-year-old English girl Venetia Burney. This suggestion won over several other suggestions because it is the same name used for the Roman god of the underworld who had the ability to make himself invisible—probably similar to how Pluto hadn’t been seen earlier. Also, its first two letters had the initials of Percival Lowell.
After this major discovery, he was able to discover other objects in the Kuiper belt. While working at the Lowell Observatory, his discoveries included hundreds of stars and asteroids along with two comets. He was also able to discover new star clusters and galaxy clusters, including a super cluster of galaxies. Overall, he was able to count more than 29,000 galaxies.

War Time Career

He worked for the Lowell Observatory until he was called for service when the World War II took place. Clyde taught at the U.S. Navy at the Arizona State College. He taught his students about navigation. He worked there for two years from 1943.
When the war was over, he planned to return to the Lowell Observatory, but they were no longer able to hire him because of a shortage in funding. Come 1946, he worked for the military once more and this time he participated in the ballistics research done at the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. There, he supervised optical instrumentation which was used for testing new missiles.
During his career in the military, he was able to design several new instruments including IGOR—the Intercept Ground Optical Recorder which was a super camera used in the White Sands Missile Range for 30 years after his development.
Clyde remained working at the White Sands Missile Range for 9 years and he left in 19He had been given the medal of the Pioneers for his contributions in the missile range.

Interest in UFOs

Clyde was the most notable astronomer to have actually reported seeing UFOs, supporting the extraterrestrial hypothesis. He described the UFOs he saw near Las Cruces in Mexico as having six to eight lights in rectangular shape which had petrified him with astonishment. He also reported seeing unexplained green fireballs apart from his other sightings.

Personal Life and Latter Years

In his lifetime, Clyde was able to make 30 telescopes by himself, having been unimpressed with the store-bought ones. While he was working at the Lowell Observatory, he met Patricia Edson in Arizona whom he married later on. They had two children by the names of Alden and Annette.
After his career in the White Sands Missile Range ended, he became a member of the New Mexico State University faculty up until his retirement in 19He also went to and from Canada and the United States to give lectures and raise money for the scholarship fund of New Mexico State University for those taking post-doctoral studies in astronomy.
Pluto had been re-classified as a dwarf planet after a deeper understanding of the objects in the Kuiper belt was established. According to his wife, although Clyde would have been disappointed because of the reclassification had he been alive to see it (he had been resisting attempts to remove Pluto as one of the planets when he was alive), he would have accepted this decision because “he was a scientist” and he would understand the basis of the decision.
He had lived a full life with much of his years having been dedicated to astronomy. He died at the age of 90 on January 17, 1997 and a certain amount of his ashes was placed inside the spacecraft called New Horizons.

Who is Daniel Bernoulli: Biography

Not many people must have heard of Daniel Bernoulli perhaps because he did not bring about the significant changes men like Einstein and Newton brought to the scientific world. Nevertheless his contributions earned him a great name during his time. Daniel Bernoulli was a Swiss physician, doctor and mathematician. He is most prominent for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, particularly fluid mechanics, and for his exceptional work in probability and statistics. Bernoulli’s theorem is the foundation of many engineering applications, such as aircraft wing design.

Academic Life and Career

Daniel was born in a family of leading mathematicians on 8th of February, 1700 in Groningen. His father Johann Bernoulli was also a mathematician and so was his older brother Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli and his uncle Jacob Bernoulli. His father encouraged him to pursue a business career but little Daniel was always fascinated with mathematics; however, when Daniel turned thirteen his father sent him to Basel University to study philosophy and logic. He graduated in 1715 and a year later received his Master’s degree. Later upon his father’s wishes he studied medicine on the condition that his father would teach him mathematics privately, which they continued for some time. During 1718, he spent time studying medicine at Heidelberg and Strasbourg in 17In 1720 he returned to Basel to complete his doctorate in medicine. He also went to Venice to study medicine. Here he worked on mathematics and his first mathematical work was published in 1724 with the support of Goldbach. This mathematical work was named as Mathematical exercises. In the same year he went to St. Petersburg as professor of mathematics, but was unhappy there, and a temporary illness in 1733 gave him an excuse for leaving. He returned to the University of Basel, where he consecutively held the chairs of medicine, metaphysics and natural philosophy until his death.

Contribution to Mathematics, Statistics and Physics

His most prominent work titled as ‘Hydrodynamica’, which was published in 1738, was a milestone in the theory of the flowing behavior of liquids. His work was based on the principle of conservation of energy, which he had studied with his father in 17In this Bernoulli developed the theory of watermills, windmills, water pumps and water propellers. He was the first to distinguish between hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure. His Bernoulli Principle on stationary flow has remained the general principle of hydrodynamics and aerodynamics even today and is the basis of modern aviation.
He is also the author of Specimen theoriae novae de mensura sortis (Exposition of a New Theory on the Measurement of Risk) which is the basis of economic theory of risk aversion, risk premium and utility.
He is one of the earliest writers who made an attempt to devise the kinetic theory of gases and used the idea to explain Boyle’s law. He has also worked on elasticity with his close friend Leonhard Euler and helped his friend with development of the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. Bernoulli’s principle is of significant use in aerodynamics.


Daniel Bernoulli died on March 17, 1782 in Basel, Switzerland. Bernoulli won or shared 10 prizes of the Paris Academy of Sciences, with Euler.

Who is David Bohm: Biography

David Joseph Bohm, more commonly known as David Bohm, was an American-born British quantum physicist who was a leading expert in the fields of theoretical physics, neuropsychology and philosophy. He is regarded as one of the most greatest and most influential theoretical physicists of the 20th century.

Early Life and Education:

David Bohm was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania to Jewish parents. His father owned a local furniture store. Bohm graduated from Pennsylvania State College in 19After attending the California Institute of Technology in 1940, he acquired a doctorate in theoretical physics at the University of California, Berkeley under Robert Oppenheimer.

Contributions and Achievements:

David Bohm, a scientist-philosopher, was a rare combination of the spirit of science and philosophy. He was considered to be one of the world’s foremost theoretical physicists and the most influential among the new thinkers. He was a committed researcher and seeker who was intensely absorbed in the problems of the foundations of physics, studied the theory of relativity and developed an alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics in order to eliminate the philosophical paradoxes that seemed to be prevalent in quantum mechanics and developed a metaphysics, the philosophy of the implicate order, to steer humanity to a new profound vision of reality.
He followed the great tradition of Aristotle, in developing first a physics and finding that it was inadequate to explain the dynamic process of matter, life and consciousness, developed a metaphysics of the implicate and explicate order. The implicate-explicate order is the philosophical conclusion he had drawn from his life long research and musings in physics. Like Einstein-though for different reasons, Bohm has never been reconciled to the current quantum mechanics’ interpretations and proposed a hidden order which was at work beneath the seeming chaos and lack of continuity of individual particles of matter described by quantum mechanics.

Later Life and Death:

Bohm continued his work in quantum physics past his retirement in 1987, writing the posthumously published “The Undivided Universe: An ontological interpretation of quantum theory (1993)”, in collaboration with his friend Basil Hiley. He died of a heart failure in Hendon, London, on 27 October 19Bohm was 74 years old.

Who is Dian Fossey: Biography

Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932- December 27, 1985) was a well-known American Zoologist that was best known for her extensive study of gorillas that took about 18 years to complete. What was so fascinating about Dian Fossey was that she had no problem going out of her comfort zone and moving Rwanda where she would study the gorillas in their rainforest habitat. She was encouraged the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey to work in Rwanda and this was where she spent most of her time doing her work. She was murdered in 1985 and until today her murder remains an open case.She was known as one of the foremost primatologists back when she was still alive and she helped for the group called “Leakey’s Angels: which unsurprisingly, also counted Jane Goodall and Birute Galdikas as the other two members. Fossey focused on gorillas, Goodall fixated on the chimpanzees, and Birute specialized in orangutans and it was Leakey who sent them out to study these great apes in their natural habitats.

The early life and education background of Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey was well-known as a primatologist and as a naturalist and she developed a love for animals at a very young age. She was born in January 16, 1932 in San Francisco CA, where she grew up with her mom and her step-dad. Throughout her young life, she was a great horse-woman and dreamed of one day becoming a veterinarian. She enrolled in the University of California to study pre-veterinary medicine courses and while she was a very good student, base science subjects like chemistry and physics weren’t really her cup of tea. She later moved to San Diego state where she majored in occupational therapy instead.
After she graduated from her occupational therapy course in 1953, she spent several months as a hospital intern in California but made the move to Louisville in Kentucky where served as the director of the occupational therapy department at the Kosair Crippled Children’s hospital, this was in 19She lived on a farm located in the outskirts of the city and this is where she spent a lot of her down time tending to farm animals but her happiness didn’t last because she eventually became restless and yearned to see what the world had to offer and this is when she set her sights on seeing Africa.

Trip to Africa

But in September 1963, Fossey finally made her way to Africa. She spent her entire life-savings for the trip and even took out an $8000 bank loan which was sizeable at that time. She made her way to Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and the Congo but she also saw lots of other places on her trip. It was only a matter of time before she met up with Mary Leakey and her husband Louis Leakey- they were both archaeologists and one of the most famous husband-and-wide teams in scientific history.
She also met up with wildlife photographers Joan and Alan Root who were busy with a documentary on gorillas in Africa. It was this couple who brought her along to one of their trips to look for the gorillas and this was when Fossey fell in love with the great apes which she talks about at great length in her autobiography.

The start of her career

she went back home to Kentucky with great reluctance but it was also when she met up with Louis Leakey once more and it was he who suggested that just like Jane Goodall and her chimps in Tanzania, she too could undertake a long-term study of the gorillas in Rwanda. She studied Swahili and undertook an auditing class on the subject of primatology as she waited the 8 months it would take for her funding and her visa to be ready and in December 1966, she finally arrived at Nairobi.
She took time to acquire a vehicle she named “Lily” and even took a trip to the Gombe Stream Research Center to meet up with Jane Goodall and see first-hand how she interacted with her subjects. Alan Root helped her obtain her permits to work in the Virunga Mountains and how to track gorillas. It was all uphill from there. In the early 1967s, Dian Fossey began her 18-year long field study of the apes in the Congo. She lived in tents and existed canned food; once a month, she would trek down the mountain to where her jeep was and go on a two hour drive to restock in the village of Kikumba.

Dian Fossey’s work in Africa

On the year 1967, she spearheaded the founding of the Karisoke Research Center which was a rather remote camp nestled in the rainforest found in the Ruhengeri province. It took quite a whole for her to get to know the gorillas in this new area because they had never before been studied and only looked at men as poachers. Not only did she have to content with the remote location but she also had to deal with research students that left due to the fact they could not handle the extreme coldness and darkness of the camp.
She was vehemently opposed to poaching and while it was an outlawed activity in Rwanda, it was a law that was interpreted very loosely. Not only did she work to prevent the poaching of gorillas that were to be exported to zoos but she also cared for injured and sick primates should they come to her attention. Aside from her opposition to poaching, she was also against the idea of tourists coming to see the primates since they were susceptible to human diseases. These days, her foundation acknowledges responsible tourism and even promotes it as a good way to help the preservation of her beloved gorillas.

Her autobiography and legacy

Dian Fossey was found hacked to death on December 1985 and though no one has been convicted, the finger points to poachers as the culprits. Her autobiography Gorillas in the Mist became a best seller though and was later turned into a movie. Her foundation lives in and has even extended operations to help gorillas in other African states.

Who is Dorothy Hodgkin: Biography

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin is best known for her work in developing protein crystallography. A woman of great intellect and an immense passion for science, she helped advance the x-ray crystallography technique, which was the key to studying and understanding the 3-dimensional structures of biomolecules.

Life and Education

Dorothy Crowfoot was born to John Winter Crowfoot and Grace Mary Hood Crowfoot in Cairo, Egypt on May 12, 19John worked for the Egyptian Education Service as a school inspector and later on moved to Sudan where he became Director of Education and Director of Antiquities. He retired from his career in Sudan in 1926 and focused on archaeology. He became the Director of Jerusalem’s British School of Archaeology and went on different excavations in Samaria, Bosra, and Mount Ophel. Grace Mary was a botanist and took time to illustrate the different flora found in Sudan. She was also very much involved in John’s work. Both parents believed in selflessness and service — traits that they instilled in their daughters as they were growing up.
Dorothy’s interest in chemistry started when she was just 10 years old. On a visit to Sudan, Dr. A.F. Joseph, her parents’ good friend, let her study and analyze some chemicals. When she was attending the Sir John Leman School, she was allowed to join the boys as they studied chemistry. By the end of her early schooling, she had already decided that chemistry was something she wanted to pursue.
When Dorothy was given the chance to visit her father in Sudan in 1923, she immediately fell in love with the place. She spent some time with her parents and helped out in the excavation in Jerash. She and her sister would also study the pebbles they found in a nearby stream using a portable mineral analysis kit, further pushing her fascination and interest in crystals and minerals. This experience almost made her give up chemistry and replace it with archaeology instead. Then she was given a copy of “Concerning the Nature of Things” by Sir William Henry Bragg when she was 15, and she was intrigued at the thought of being able to study the properties of atoms and molecules using x-rays.
Aged 18, she started her chemistry degree at Somerville College, Oxford University, before moving to the University of Cambridge to earn her PhD. Supervised by John Desmond Bernal, she discovered how x-ray crystallography can be used to determine the structure of proteins. She assisted Bernal as he applied the technique to pepsin, the first time this method was used in analyzing a biological substance.
Dorothy married Thomas Hodgkin, a historian’s son, in 19Their marriage brought them three children. Their eldest son Luke became a mathematician. Their daughter Elizabeth followed her father’s career, becoming a historian, while the younger son Toby studied botany and agriculture.
Dorothy Hodgkin was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis after experiencing pain in her hands for a period of time. Although she spent a lot of time in a wheelchair, this did not stop her from pursuing her passion and she continued her research work.

Her Greatest Contributions

Dorothy Hodgkin discovered three-dimensional biomolecular structures and published the structure of the steroid cholesteryl iodide in 19She also worked on the structure of penicillin with her colleagues and published it in 19Her work on vitamin B12 was published in 1954, which led to her being awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1964.
She was among those who worked on the structure of insulin; which was published in 19Work on this specific project took 35 years, as they started studying the crystalline insulin sample provided by Robert Robinson in 1934 when x-ray crystallography was not yet fully developed. This specific hormone grabbed Dorothy’s interest because of the complexity of its structure and the effect that it has on the body.

Other Achievements

Dorothy was given a research fellowship from Somerville College, Oxford in 19She was also Somerville’s first fellow and tutor in chemistry, a position she held from 1936 to 19During this period, she tutored the late Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who was then Margaret Roberts. Thatcher had a portrait of Dorothy Hodgkin installed in 10 Downing Street in the 1980s.
When the structure of the DNA was released, Dorothy was among the first ones to see it. She travelled from Oxford to Cambridge with a few other people to see the structure as constructed by James Watson and Francis Crick.
She was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1964 and became the second woman to receive the Order of Merit, the first of which was given to Florence Nightingale. She also became the first woman to receive the Copley medal and was a winner of the Lenin Peace Prize. A Fellow of the Royal Society, she also became Bristol University’s Chancellor from 1970 to 19She was given an Honorary Degree of Science from University of Bath in 1978.
Hodgkin showed great concern about social inequalities and aimed to resolve conflicts. She was president of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs from 1976 to 1988.
Because of her outstanding work, the Dorothy Hodgkin fellowship was established by the Royal Society for those who are in the early stages of their career in research. She was also chosen as one of the five “Women of Achievement” whose faces appeared in a series of British stamps that were issued in August 19The Royal Society also celebrated their 350th anniversary in 2010 by releasing 10 stamps that showcased their most acclaimed members. Among the ten was Dorothy Hodgkin, making it the second time for her face to appear on a stamp.
Her name is also honored through several council offices and buildings in educational institutions. Among these are the council offices in the Borough of Hackney in London, buildings in Bristol University, Keele Univerity and King’s College in London, and Sir John Leman High School’s science block.
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin died on July 29, 1994.

Who is Edward Osborne Wilson: Biography

Edward Osborne Wilson, more commonly known as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist who is widely considered to be the world’s leading authority on ants. One of the leading figures in sociobiology, he is often dubbed as “the father of sociobiology”.A notable author and researcher, Wilson won the Pulitzer Prize twice. He is also noted for his environmental advocacy, and his secular-humanist and deist ideas related to religious and ethical subjects.

Early Life and Education:

Born in 1929 in Alabama, E. O. Wilson showed an interest in science from an early age. He always hoped to become a biologist. Wilson received his BS and MS degrees from the University of Alabama.

Contributions and Achievements:

Wilson earned his doctorate in biology from Harvard University in 19He carried out various research studies and was awarded many prizes. He published his most controversial book, “Sociobiology: The New Synthesis” in 1975 that gained him countrywide acclaim and recognition. John Paul Scott had coined the term “sociobiology” during a conference on social behavior and genetics. Wilson thoroughly discussed the evolutionary mechanics behind social behaviors in his book, for instance nurturance, aggression and altruism.
When Wilson started taking ants as his main focus of research, he generalized his conclusions to the behavior of primates including human beings. This created much controversy and several scholoars rejected this view. In recent years, however, research done in Africa in the field of chimpanzees has established that he was not quite wrong.
E. O. Wilson has been harshly criticized by liberal thinkers as well as the members of the Psychology Division of Women in the American Psychological Association. The primary contentions are however emotional, and not empirical. Wilson did not try to state that human nature was purely inherited. Several of his detractors misinterpreted his claims.

Who is Edmund Halley: Biography

The field of astronomy is filled with many notable names and one of them just so happens to be that of Edmund Halley. Halley was an Englishman who was a known geophysicist, mathematician, astronomer, and meteorologist. He was also the second Astronomer Royal in Great Britain after John Flamsteed and is best known for having computed the orbit of the famous Halley’s Comet (named after him, obviously). He was a man of many accomplishments and was the brains behind several inventions and was intrepid discoverer.

His life

Edmund Halley was born in England on November 8, 16He was the son of Edmond Halley Sr. who was a very successful soap-maker in London. His family was originally from Derbyshire. As a young kid, Edmund Halley was quite interested in math and began his education at St Paul’s School. On the year 1673, he enrolled at the Oxford Queen’s College. During his undergraduate years in college, he spent a great deal of his time publishing papers based on sunspots and the Solar System.
One the year 1675, Edmund Halley nabbed the assistant spot and worked for John Flamsteed who was the Astronomer Royal at Greenwich Observatory. One of his many tasks was to assign numbers to stars using the Flamsteed numbers. A year after, he went on a journey to the Saint Helena in the south Atlantic and brought with him a sizeable sextant along with some telescopic sights so he could set up an observatory and study as well as catalogue the stars in the southern part of the world. It was during his time in St. Helena that he was able to carefully observe the transit of Mercury across the sky and this was also the time he realized that Venus, moving in the same way, could then be used to figure out the true size of the Solar System.
A couple of years after his stint at St. Helena he moved back to England in 1678 and a year after that he went to Danzig at the behest of the Royal Society so he could help resolve a dispute between Robert Hooke and Johannes Hevelius. The dispute was that since Hevelius did not utilize a telescope in his observations, Robert Hooke saw fit to question his findings. Halley stayed with Hevelius so he could observe his findings and verify whatever his conclusions were.
That same year, he published Cataogue Stellarum Australium which had details if his findings while in St. Helena. His publication was so extensive that it included details of 341 stars that could be viewed only in the Southern Hemisphere. It was because of this that Flamsteed saw fit to give him the title “The Southern Tycho” in reference to Tycho Brahe. Halley also got his Master’s Degree from Oxford and was then elected as a Royal Society Fellow.
In the year 1686, Halley was able to come up with a second publication which consisted of the second parts of his findings during his stay at St. Helena. This publication was a paper and some charts on monsoons and also trade winds. He was able to come up with the conclusion that solar heating was what was behind atmospheric motions and he also established that there was a close relationship between sea level height and barometric pressure. A lot of experts credit his charts for helping define the emerging field of information visualization.
A lot of his time was spend conducting lunar observations and this was true even when he got married to Mary Tooke in 1682 and they had three children together. Aside from his lunar studies, he was also quite taken with problems relating to problem in particular that really got his attention was looking for proof about Kepler’s Law concerning planetary motions. He was so taken with it that in 1684,he travelled to Cambridge to talk to a certain Sir Isaac Newton- something that John Flamsteed also did a couple of years earlier. However, when he got to Cambridge, he found out that Newton already managed to solve the problem after Flamsteed’s visit. They figured out the orbit of the planet Kirch but never got around to publishing their results. Edmund Halley asked to see the Calculations Newton used but the latter wasn’t able to locate them although he did promise to show it to Halley at a later time. He kept his promise by way of a short treatise which was entitled on the motion of Bodies in an Orbit.
Halley first made calculations with comets that orbited Kirch and he was able to make use of Flamsteed’s observations. He was indeed able to calculate the orbit of the comet in 1682 however his calculations of the comet Kirch’s orbit weren’t too accurate. In the year 1691, Edmund Halley came up with the diving bell which he and his colleagues tested extensively. This was the reason Edmund Halley was known as one of the earliest cases for middle ear trauma since he would stay underwater for periods that lasted up to 4 hours. It was also in the same year that he came up with an early working model of a magnetic compass and introduced it to the Royal Society.


Halley was well-known as an atheist and this was why he wasn’t able to nab the spot of Savilian Professor of Astronomy. John Tillotson the Archbishop of Canterbury and another bishop opposed his bid for the post. Instead, the teaching spot was given to David Gregory who was backed by Isaac Newton.
In 1694, he was censured by the Royal Society for suggesting that the biblical Noah’s flood was more the result of a comment than some being in the sky. But he did get vindication 3 centuries after his death when evidence was found that a comet did crash during the time and split in two.


In the year 1698, he was given permission to take command of the Paramour so he could go on with his studies in the South Atlantic and find out more about the laws that govern variation of the compass. The expedition was cut short since there was unrest among the crew.

His death

He died on January 14, 1742 and sadly, did not live to see the return of the comet that was named in his honor.

Who is Edward Jenner: Biography

Also known as the “Father of Immunology”, Edward Anthony Jenner was an English scientist and is famous for his discovery of smallpox vaccine. This was the first successful vaccine ever to be developed and remains the only effective preventive treatment for the fatal smallpox disease. His discovery was an enormous medical breakthrough and has saved countless lives. In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eliminated disease.

Early Life and Career

Edward Jenner was born on May 17, 1749, in Berkely, Gloucestershire, England. His father (who died when Edward was just five years old) was a preacher for the parish. He received his training at Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire from eight years as an apprentice to Daniel Ludlow (a surgeon). During his training, an interesting thing happened that led to his famous discovery in the later years. He overheard a girl say that she could not get the dreaded Smallpox disease because she had already had another disease known as Cowpox. This evoked a desire inside Jenner to carryout a research on this information.
As a child, Jenner was a keen observer of nature and in 1770 after completing his training he went to St George’s Hospital, London to study anatomy and surgery under the well-known surgeon John Hunter and others. After finishing his studies, he returned to Berkeley to set up a medical practice where he stayed until his death.
Jenner and others formed a medical society in Rodborough, Gloucestershire, for the purpose to read papers on medical subjects and dine together. He also published papers on angina.

Discovery of Smallpox Vaccine

Jenner worked in a rural society where most of his patients were farmers or worked on farms with cattle. In the 18th century Smallpox was considered to be the most deadly and persistent human pathogenic disease. The main treatment was by a method which had brought success to a Dutch physiologist, Jan Ingenhaus and was brought to England in 1721 by Lady Mary Wortly Montague, the wife of the British Ambassador to Turkey. This method was well known in eastern countries, and involved scratching the vein of a healthy person and pressing a small amount of matter, taken from a smallpox pustule of a person with a mild attack, into the wound. The risk of the treatment was that the patient often contracted the full disease, with fatal results.
In 1788 a wave of smallpox swept through Gloucestershire and during this outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in contact with the much milder disease called cowpox never came down with smallpox. Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked.
In 1796 Jenner conducted an experiment on one of his patients called James Phipps, an eight year old boy. After making two cuts in James’ arm, Jenner worked into them a small amount of cowpox puss. Although the boy had the normal reaction, of a slight fever, after several days, he soon was in good health. When, a few weeks later Jenner repeated the vaccination, using smallpox matter, the boy remained healthy. This is how Jenner’s vaccination treatment was born, named after the medical name for cowpox, vaccinia.
In 1798 after carrying out more successful tests, he published his findings: An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease Known by the Name of Cow Pox.


Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy in January 1823, with his right side paralyzed. He never fully recovered, and finally died of an apparent stroke on 26 January 1823 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England.

Sources: Famous Scientists