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Catherine II the great - Catherine II of Russia… Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart - Duquesa de Alba… Biographies Multiposts

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Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Richard Wagner
  2. Biography of Catherine II the great - Catherine II of Russia
  3. Biography of Christina Aguilera
  4. Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart - Duquesa de Alba biography

Biography of Richard Wagner

(1813/05/22 - 1883/02/13)

Richard Wagner
German composer
He was born on May 22, 1813 in Leipzig.
His adoptive father Ludwig Geyer, actor and painter, was his first instructor. His sister mayor Rosalie was also his other sister, Klara, singer and actress.
In 1829 he attended a representation of Fidelio, and dazzled with the talent of soprano Wihelmine Schröder-Devrient (Leonora). He decided to devote himself to music that day.
Not highlighted as a student of piano and violin. For six months he studied with Theodor Weinlig, cantor of Leipzig de Santo Tomás.
He showed his interest also in literature, mostly classical, which discovered in the opera his ideal, since thus could engage the two genres together.
It was one of the most important musicians of the 19th century. Composer, conductor and music theorist. His professional career began at age 20, when he was hired as director of the choir of Würzburg. He composed his first operas for theatres of little category, the fairies (Die Feen), Magdeburg (1834), (La donna serpente) and the prohibition of love (Das Liebesverbot), premiered in Magdeburg (1836).
On 24 November 1836 he married the actress Minna Planer. Their accumulated debts while he worked in theatres of Königsberg, Dresden and Riga, forced you to flee the country; Paris was their destiny, and during the journey to London (Paris road) a series of terrible storms inspired a new opera: the Flying Dutchman (Der fliegende Holländer). He stayed a short time in prison by debtor, since debts accumulated rapidly and revenues were scarce. Finally it was the city of Dresden that, thanks to the help of Meyerbeer, accepted the premiere of Rienzi on October 20, 1842 with great success. Since then, Wagner was a composer regarded in his homeland.
The Royal Theatre of Dresden agreed to the Flying Dutchman in 1842-18On the other hand, the influence of Weber increases their interest to the Germanic world, primarily by the mythical and legendary, so important in the German cultural tradition. He developed the idea of the "total art work" (Gesamtkunstwerk), synthesis of all the arts, in a series of trials between 1849 and 1852, and it reflected in the first half of his tetralogy the ring of the Nibelung.
He participated in the outbreak of the revolution of 1848 in Germany, because of which had to flee Paris and then Zurich. In 1852 he met Otto Wesendock rico and his wife Mathilde, who made available for marriage Wagner the Asylum, a small cottage in Wesendock near Zurich, which inspired the composer some of his best works. The relationship between Wagner and Mathilde soon became impossible love. Their romance was embodied in the passionate work Tristan und Isolde (1857-1859), one of the Wagnerian music dramas more long and difficult to represent.
When the composer had withdrawn to Mariafeld (near Zurich, may 1864) fleeing from creditors the Secretary of the Cabinet of Louis II is presented to indicate that the King, his most ardent admirer, would be flattered if you accept to be your guest. Quickly the many debts were paid and settled in a house close to the summer residence of the King in Berg. For him, he composed the March of the tribute.
On June 1, 1865 debuted Tristan und Isolde in Munich, as he began his autobiography my life (Mein Leben). It was learned that he had initiated relationships with Cosima Liszt (daughter of Franz Liszt) and they were harnessed to a courtly intrigue that forced Luis II to ask it to away a time of Munich. He moved to Switzerland and, after the death of his wife Minna, in Dresden (1866), settled with Cosima in the beautiful Triebschen villa on the shores of Lake Geneva, with her four daughters.
It might work in his operas without worrying about expenses and in 1867 ended the master singers of Nuremberg (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg); works conceived as comic opera, but is actually closer to the customs of the time of the German singers guilds (Scarbo). In Triebschen received visits of Friedrich Nietzsche. Throughout 1869 Siegfried ended almost entirely; It would end the last pages in 18On September 22, 1869 he presented the gold of the Rhine in Munich, while he began the composition of the twilight of the gods.
After many years of living with Wagner, Cosima Hans von Bülow divorces and marriage in 1870; for his birthday, he composed the Siegfried Idyll. By this time traveled on to Germany to prepare the way for his Fesrspielhaus in Bayreuth and the Foundation of the Wagner society.
Its fifty ninth birthday laid the first stone of the Bayreuth Theatre, and the following year made a tour of concerts in Germany to raise funds, and finally, and thanks to the generous help of Luis II, could finish. That same year (1874) built their House Wahnfried in Bayreuth, which moved. It ended the twilight of the gods, thus putting an end to the tetralogythat premiered forming three complete cycles in Bayreuth (1876).
After the festival he moved with his family to London , where he directed a series of concerts to capture funds covering the losses of Bayreuth. Shortly after were presented him their first heart problems which moved to Bad Ems (1877) for a health cure.
In 1882 he completed his last opera in Palermo, Parsifal. He suffered a first attack to the heart in Berlin (1881) and the second in Bayreuth, where already spare premiered on July 26, 1882 Parsifal, giving 16 functions in which the third act of each of them was directed by the composer himself.
He moved to Venice to recover its already very deteriorated health. On 13 February 1883 he died in that city. The 18th was buried in the garden of Wahnfried, Bayreuth, where then also was buried his wife.

Biography of Catherine II the great - Catherine II of Russia

(1729/05/02 - 1796/11/17)

Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II the great
Sophie Auguste Fredericke von Anhalt-Zerbst
Empress of Russia
He was born May 2, 1729 in Stettin, Pomerania, in Germany, daughter of Cristian August of Anhalt Zerdst.
It is committed to the nephew of the Tsarina of all the Russias Elizabeth Petrovna, the Tsar heir Pedro Feodorovitch, when he was 15 years old. In 1745 he marries, and in the year 1754 gave birth to the future emperor Paul. In a few months the Tsarina learned the Russian language. It adopted the Russian Orthodox religion, as a way of currying favor with the Russian nobility, adopting the name of Catherine Alexeiva. Her husband is crowned Peter III in 1762.
One of his first actions was the signing of peace with Federico II King of Prussia, bringing back the possession of the occupied territories during the war. This measure has generated him enemies within the Russian nobility. Among the ecclesiastical dignitaries and noblemen, they forced him to abdicate the throne in favor of his wife July 9, 17A few days later he was murdered.
Catherine maintained close contact with Voltaire, Denis Diderot and provided financial support to some French writers. I tried to implement some of the ideas illustrated to the rationalization and reform of the administration of the Russian Empire. Despite their interest in legal reform, the Commission appointed to carry out this task in 1767 could not meet its objectives.
Its achievements include the creation of the first schools for girls and a College medical care of his subjects. In the first years of his reign, he upheld the decision of Pedro III of the wealthy class of compulsory military service, granted other many privileges and gave his followers titles, positions, land and slaves to work in their fields.
Despite its stated abhorrence of servitude, he did much to extend this institution bowing servants of the State to private owners. He suppressed the autonomy Ukrainian and seized the assets of the Church (1764), which resulted in the popular uprising of Pugachev (1773-1774) led by the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev , who swept most of the basin of the Volga River and the Ural mountains, before being definitely crushed by military forces. The rebellion marked a shift towards a more reactionary domestic politics.
One of the features of the reign of Catalina was the important role played by their lovers or favorite. Ten men occupied this semi-official position, and at least two of them, Grigori Orlov and Grigori Aleksándrovich Potemkín, had special importance when formulating foreign policy and inside the country.
Thanks to two wars against the Ottoman Empire (1768-1774 and 1787-1791) and the annexation of Crimea (1783), Russia managed to control the North coast of the Black Sea. Russian control over Poland and Lithuania also increased greatly, culminating in the annexation of large swathes of territory in the three deals of Poland (1772, 1793, 1795).
In 1775, an important reform of the provincial administration was held in order to achieve better control of the Empire and a major reform of the urban administration. The French Revolution increased their hostility to liberal ideas.
Catherine II was planning to be part of a European Coalition against France when he died due to a brain, followed by an infarct, infarction from November 17, 1796 in St. Petersburg.

Biography of Christina Aguilera

(1980/12/18 - Unknown)

Christina Aguilera
Christina Maria Aguilera
American singer
He was born on 18 December 1980 in Staten Island, New York.
Daughter of Fausto Xavier Aguilera, Ecuadorian, and Shelly Loraine Fidler, Irish, both soldiers who traveled to Europe with the "Youth Symphony Orchestra". His parents separated she very small being. He lived in places like New Jersey, Texas, New York and Japan. After the divorce of his parents when he was six years old, together with her younger sister Rachel and her mother (who later remarried), moved into the home of his grandmother in Pittsburgh, Rochester, New York. After many years of estrangement, Aguilera was reconciled with his father in 2012.
Eight years, appeared on the program "Star Search". At the age of ten he sang the national anthem for the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Penguins. With twelve worked in the "new Mickey Mouse club", where he would remain for two years. At the beginning of 1998 invited her is to do an audition for the animated Disney film "Mulan" and recorded the theme "Reflection".
Their first album shows as a sparkling girl that makes dancing with the first melody of the song "Genie in a bottle". Their single "Blessed" was produced by Travon Potts. On tour in Japan, he sang along with Sheryl Crow and Diana Ross. Also sang for the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, in the spatial televised "Christmas in Washington".
On February 24, 2000 Grammy award it won the best new artist. Launches "Stripped" in 2002 and sold more than ten million copies, and subsequently "Back to Basics". In 2008 it appears his first album titled compilation "Keeps Gettin' Better: A Decade of Hits". Their fourth Studio album called "Bionic" launched in June 20That same year he premiered the film "Burlesque", which coprotagoniza with Cher.
He participated as a judge in the program music "The Voice" with singers like Adam Levine, which collaborates in the simple "Moves Like Jagger" and Cee Lo Green and Blake Shelton with whom he recorded the Studio album, "Lotus" in 20In April 2014, announced that it had begun work on their eighth Studio album.
Winner of four Grammy Awards and one Latin Grammy Award (first American to win this Grammy), between fifteen nominations and three, respectively.
Married Jordan Bratman from 2005 to 2011, his son Max Liron, born on 12 January 2008.Aguilera pledged with Matthew Rutler in February of 20The couple has a daughter, born in August 20

Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart - Duquesa de Alba biography

(1926/03/28 - 20/11/2014)

Maria of the Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart y Silva
Duchess of Alba
He was born on March 28, 1926 in Madrid, although it was always considered heart of Andalusia.
Descendant of King James II of England through his illegitimate son James Fitz-James, who had with his mistress Arabella Churchill.
Only daughter of Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart y Falcó, 17TH Duke of Alba, and María del Rosario de Silva y Gurtubay, 15th Duchess of Aliaga and Marchioness of San Vicente de el Barco X. Your baptismal godparents were King Alfonso XIII and Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg.
His mother, sick with tuberculosis, kept separate to avoid contagion and died at age 33.
Amateur flamenco and painting of Harlequin, Picasso wanted it to paint nude but her first husband refused. 18th Duchess of Alba, twenty times great of Spain and considered the woman with more titles on the face of the Earth. On October 12, 1947 he married Luis Martínez de Irujo , who died in 19Then he relates Jesús Aguirre y Ortiz de Zárate, who he married on March 16, 1978 receiving criticism for the condition of ex-priest of her husband. Jesus died in May 2001, victim of a pulmonary embolism. Are all his sons from the first marriage: Carlos Alfonso, Jacobo, Fernando, Cayetano, and Eugenia.
In 2008 related to it is sentimentally official Alfonso Díez Carabantes, and in April 2010, both confirmed their engagement. The difference in age of 24 of the Duchess was no obstacle for the couple. In August 2011, announced in a statement that contract marriage on 5 October of the same year at the Palacio de Dueñas, and the godfathers of the link would be his eldest son Carlos, Duke of Huéscar, and Carmen Tello and Barbadillo, Valencina ex-marquesa and friend of Cayetana. The Duchess of Alba contracted this marriage day for the third time at the age of 85.
It was lady Spain in 1987, succeeding Carmen Cervera of Thyssen. In 2001, the Council of Ministers approved a Royal Decree that was granted the Grand Cross of the Civil order of Alfonso X the wise in view of the merits and circumstances that concur in his person. He carried out great work to preserve and enhance the cultural goods that are part of her family heritage. Thus, the Spaniard rebuilt Liria Palace, demolished during the Civil War, enriching it with paintings, furniture, rugs and large number of objects. Also, has been restored and improved the Palacio de las Dueñas, in Seville, and Monterrey in Salamanca. All of them can be visited. In addition, it has opened the archives of the House of Alba researchers. It is in possession of numerous awards and distinctions, among which are the grand crosses of the order of Isabel the Catholic, charity and the agricultural merit.
Maria of the Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, the Duchess of Alba, died on November 20, 2014 in dependencies of the Seville Palacio de las Dueñas. It had been transferred two days earlier to his residence from the Clinica Quiron sacred heart to continue the treatment there. The transfer was made at the express wish of the patient and their family. With 88 years, it left behind an existence, for women with more titles in the world.

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