Rómulo Gallegos Freire… Svante August Arrhenius… Dilma Rousseff… José Mujica… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Rómulo Gallegos Freire
  2. Biography of Svante August Arrhenius
  3. Biography of Dilma Rousseff
  4. Biography of José Mujica

Biography of Rómulo Gallegos Freire

(1884/08/02 - 1969/04/05)

Rómulo Gallegos Freire
Writer and Venezuelan politician
He was born on August 2, 1884 in a humble family in Caracas (Venezuela).
He studied at the "sucre" school and graduated in philosophy, literature and Math. Later, he directed the Federal Liceo de Barcelona (Venezuela), the Normal School of Caracas and the Liceo "Andrés Bello" of the Venezuelan capital. He taught between 1912 and 1930.
During this period, he published many novels focusing on the life of his country. In his first work Reinaldo Solar (1920) poses difficulties for the protagonist to harmonize your life public and private; The climber (1925) focuses on the theme of the conquest of power; Doña Bárbara (1929) - his first work of success and considered at the time as best South American novel - has the conflict between Doña Bárbara, which means the wild aspect of nature, and Santos Luzardo, who is the law. The influence of modernismis evident in his prose. Other novels that stand out are Canaima (1935), poor black (1937), or the book of short stories, published in 1946, the rebellion.
Appointed Senator during the regime of Juan Vicente Gómez, Doña Barbara, describes the struggle against the forces of tyranny in Venezuela. Because of criticisms against the dictator that the novel contained, was forced into exile in 1931 in the United States and, subsequently, in Spain. When he returned he took part in the creation of the Democratic action party and appointed him Minister of education, but their efforts to carry out a profound reform school failed, and was forced to resign.
In 1945 took part in the military coup that brought to power to Rómulo Betancourt as interim President of the country, and he himself was elected President of Venezuela, who played for less than a year (febrero-noviembre 1948) was incapable of balancing political forces and went in exile to Cuba and then to Mexico.
In 1958 Romulo Gallegos returned to his country where he remained until his death on April 5, 1969 in Caracas.

Biography of Svante August Arrhenius

(1859/02/19 - 02/10/1927)

Svante Arrhenius
Svante August Arrhenius
Swedish chemist Premio Nobel de Química in 1903
He was born on 19 February in Vik, Sweden.
When his family moved to Uppsala from Vik, he attended the Cathedral School, place from which went to the University of that city at the age of As student, she investigated the conductive properties of electrolyte solutions. In his doctoral thesis he formulated the theory of electrolytic dissociation.
This theory says that in the dissolutions electrolyte, chemical compounds dissolved, dissociate into ions. He also argued that the degree of dissociation increases with the degree of dilution of the dissolution, a hypothesis which subsequently turned out to be true only for weak electrolytes. It was believed that this theory was wrong and approved you the thesis with the minimum possible score. Later, the theory of electrolytic dissociation was generally accepted and eventually became one of the cornerstones of modern physical chemistry and electrochemistry. In 1889, he observed that the speed of chemical reactions increases considerably with temperature, in a proportional relationship to the concentration of the activated molecules.
He was Professor of chemistry at the University of Stockholm in 1895 and director of the Nobel Institute of chemistry and physics in 19In 1902 he received the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London. In 1903 he won the Nobel Prize in chemistry "in recognition of the extraordinary services rendered to the advancement of chemistry through his theory of dissociation electrolytic.
Six years later he became a foreign member of the Royal Society. During his visit, United States in 1911 was awarded the first Medal Willard Gibbs. In 1914 he was awarded the Faraday medal.
Arrhenius was married twice: in 1894 with his pupil and Assistant, Sofía Rudbeck, and in 1905 with María Johansson. From the first marriage he had a son, Olof, and second son, Sven, and two daughters, Esther and Anna-Lisa.
Svante Arrhenius died on October 2, 1927, in Stockholm.

Biography of Dilma Rousseff

(1947/12/14 - Unknown)

Dilma Vana Rousseff
Economist and Brazilian politician
He was born on December 14, 1947 in Belo Horizonte.
Daughter of the teacher Dilma Koimbra Silva and the Bulgarian immigrant Pedro Rousseff, Member of the Bulgarian Communist movement, converted into a builder and real estate developer.
Raised in an upper middle class family, he enjoyed a happy childhood, he attended good schools of girl well, he learned French and music. It was a serious, studious, tenacious, nostalgic and loving girl books. He soon became involved in politics. Dilma participated in the resistance against the Brazilian dictatorship of the ' 60s, first in the organisation of left Policy worker and then in a guerrilla group, "Palmares revolutionary armed Vanguard". She was trained to shoot and make explosive devices. Its functions also consisted in giving lessons of Marxism, in contact with the trade unions and to launch a newspaper.
Arrested in 1970, she was sentenced by a military court and remained in prison for 3 years. The 20 days of torture and years of imprisonment that happened during those years would be recorded to fire in his memory. When he left prison he weighed 15 kilos less, but remained with the same strength of character. In December 2006, the Special Commission service of the office of human rights of the State of Rio de Janeiro approved Rousseff compensation request. It was called the "Joan of arc of the guerrillas" because of its importance within the organization. According to the daily Folha de Sao Paulo, it was at that time when Rousseff is sent to a field of training military in Uruguay under the orders of the Eastern guerrillas MLN-Tupamaros, something that was never denied.
Married in 1968, with only 20 years, with Claudio Galeno Linhares, journalist, and after divorcing in the late ' 70s, was married to a guerrilla, Carlos Franklin Paixão de Araújo, 11 years older than her and with whom she had her only child settling in Rio Grande do Sul. They separated in 20In 1977, he graduated at the school of Economics of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul while participating in the restructuring of the Brazilian workers party, later called Democratic labour party.
During the Government of Alceu necklaces in Rio Grande do Sul, between 1991 and 1995, is named Secretary of energy. In 1998, Olívio Dutra, Member of the Workers party, won the State election with the support of Democratic Party worker and returned to his post. In 1999, when breaking down the coalition and the Democratic labour party requires its members to stop their charges; Rousseff left the party and joined the workers ' Party, continuing in the Government.
In January 2003, the President appoints Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Minister of energy, position held for two years, until June 21, 20Later was appointed Minister of the Civil House of Brazil, becoming the first woman to assume the position and where he had under his command the main actions of the Executive Branch: "Growth acceleration program" (PAC), "light for all", "My House, my life", as well as the definition of rules for the exploitation of pre-saltoil wells. He was also President of the Board of Directors of the Brazilian oil State company Petrobras, and chosen by the President as his successor for the presidential candidacy by the PT in the 2010 elections.
He declared that he would work to "health and quality education" to the citizens and "not to leave that children and youth are victims of 'crack' and violence". Asked about his reputation for female authoritarian and hard, Rousseff said to look in the mirror of Hillary Clinton or Margaret Thatcher, and said that "women, when they assume certain positions have to be firm.
October 31, 2010 was elected President of Brazil, becoming the first woman in the position to get more than 55% of the votes cast. His opponent, the opponent José Serra, of the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB), received more than 44.78%.
On October 26, 2014, Dilma was re-elected President of Brazil by a narrow margin in the most contested election in the democratic history of Brazil. Aécio Neves, of the PSDBwon thanks to a minimal advantage of more than three million votes over the opponent. The defeat of Neves in his home State, Minas Gerais, was one of the keys to the re-election of Rousseff. The States of the Northeast, which concentrate more poor who receive much of the social aid from the Government, voted massively to the leader of the workers party (PT).
April 26, 2009 it was reported that it had detected a lymphatic cancer and that it should undergo chemotherapy treatment, and that a tumor was removed.

Biography of José Mujica

(1935/05/20 - Unknown)

José Mujica
José Alberto Mujica Cordano
Uruguayan politician
He was born May 20, 1935 in the district pass sand, Montevideo, Uruguay, in the bosom of a family of Basque descendants originating in biscayan town of Muxika arrived in Uruguay to 1840.
He was the first son of Demetrio Mujica Terra and Lucy Cordano. His father died when he was in third year of school, by then already had been born your sister María Eudosia, six years younger, sick with schizophrenia. The cultivation and sale of flowers became the livelihood of the family.
He studied primary and secondary studies in the school and public high school in the neighborhood where he was born. He entered preparatory law in Instituto Alfredo Vásquez Acevedo, cycle which did not finish. From the age of 13 he practiced cycling on behalf of several clubs, and in all categories.
He received political influence of his maternal uncle, Angel Cordano, a nationalist from Carmelo. In 1956, he met the nationalist Deputy Enrique Erro and began his militancy in the National party, where he became general Secretary of youth of the same. After the elections of 1958 Erro was appointed Minister of labour being accompanied by Mujica but not exercise as a Ministry official. In 1962, both left the national party to found the People's Union, along with the Socialist Party of the Uruguay and the Newgrouping. In elections they postulated to Emilio Frugoni as candidate to President of the Republic receiving only 2,3% of votes.
In that decade he participated in the national liberation movement-Tupamaros, participating in operating guerrillas and going into hiding. During the Government of Jorge Pacheco Areco received six bullets. Fell prisoner after an intense firefight in the bar "La Vía", while preparing the financial theft Mailhos.Estuvo three months in hospital and ended in Punta Carretas prison. He escaped, returned to that prison and participated in another evasion. He was arrested four times by being brutally tortured. He spent nearly 15 years in prison being her last period of detention from 1972 to 19José Mujica became one of the tupamaros dictatorship executed when your organization to resume the armed actions. In this situation also was Eleuterio Fernández Huidobro, who later became Minister of national defence, and the leader and founder of the MLN-Tupamaros, Raúl Sendic. It was released after the arrival of democracy benefited by law No. 15,737 of 8 March 1985, decreed an amnesty for political, military and common crimes committed since 1 January 1962.
Along with members of the MLN and left-wing parties created the Popular participation movement (MPP), within the Broad front, and in the elections of 1994 was elected Deputy for Montevideo, and in the 1999 was elected Senator. In the 2004 election his movement received more than 300,000 votes consolidating itself as the first force within the governing party. On March 1, 2005 he was appointed Minister of livestock, agriculture and fisheries by the President, Tabaré Vázquez. He left office on March 3, 2008 being succeeded by Ernesto Agazzi.
The broad front held on 13 and 14 December 2008 the extraordinary Congress «Zelmar Michelini", where he was proclaimed as an official candidate for the internal elections of 2009, enabling the other candidates nominated Danilo Astori, Daniel Martínez, Marcos Carámbula and Enrique Rubio to participate on equal terms. Then Martinez and Rubio abandoned his candidacy, and after internal elections, on June 28, 2009, it was chosen as the unique candidate for the Presidency by the broad front, after defeating its competitors with 52,02% of the votes.
October 25, 2009, it won almost half of the total votes, validating him to contest the Presidency to Luis Alberto Lacalle November 29, date in which won with a percentage higher than the 52% of the votes cast. José Mujica was sworn in March 1, 2010 in the Legislative Palace as President of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay. Oath received for his own wife Lucía Topolansky, being the first Senator of the nation. It was the first tupamaro to seat in Parliament, the first to preside over the General Assembly and the first, with Eduardo Bonomi, becoming a Minister before becoming President.
In 2013 The Economist went to Uruguay the country in the year and described as admirable the two most radical liberal reforms taken in that year by the Government of President José Mujica: gay marriage and the legalization and regulation of the production, sale and consumption of marijuana.
He married Lucía Topolansky in 2005, after living on a farm in the area of Rincon del Cerro from decades ago in conditions really very modest (about 45 square meters) and in which dedicated themselves to the cultivation of flowers to make a living. After taking over as President of the Republic, they decided to stay at home and always travel in second class in their official transfers. His personal fortune in 2010, when he assumed his position, was a Volkswagen 1987 model valued at $18He donates 90% of his salary.