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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Victor Jara
- Biography of Dian Fossey
- Biography of Paul Gauguin
- Biography of Anna Freud
Biography of Victor Jara
(1932/09/28 - 1973/09/14)Victor Jara
He was born on September 28, 1932 in San Ignacio, in the bosom of a family of peasants. Manuel and Amanda were their parents. Son of an alcoholic, his mother took charge of his upbringing and his brothers. She taught him to play the guitar and also many Chilean songs. Breed in Lonquén, near the capital town and spent his youth in Santiago, at the Nogales population.
When his mother died, he entered the Redemptorist Seminary of San Bernardo, where he spent more than one year. In 1953, at age 21, he joined the Choir of the University of Chile; It participates in the first Assembly of "Carmina Burana" and starts its work of gathering and folkloricresearch. Three years later, it began to form part of the Noisvander company of pampering.
Between 1956 and 1962 he studied acting and, later, address at the University of Chile School of theatre . Participates, as a student, in different productions of the company of the theater Institute at the same University, Ituch. In 1957, he joined the Assembly of songs and folk dances "Cuncumen", created following a season courses taught by Margot Loyola. It also holds his first contacts with Violeta Parra, who encourages him to continue singing.
At the age of 27, has his first experience in theatre direction: directs "similar to happiness" of Alexander Siveking. Travel with the work by Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela and Cuba. In this same year he recorded for Emi-Odeon, singing as a soloist of the "Cuncumen", two songs that were delivered by Violeta Parra. In 1960 assisted in the direction to Pedro de la Barra in the Assembly of "La Viuda de Apablaza" Germán Luco Cruchaga, for the Ituch. Later, he directed "La Mandrágora" of Machiavelli. In 1961, and as Artistic Director of the ensemble, he travels with the "Cuncumen" by Holland, France, Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria.
He composed "Dove, I want to tell you", song that marks the beginning of his musical and poetic creation. It also is Assistant Director of Agustín Sire in the Assembly of "La Madre de los Conejos" Alejandro Sieveking. In 1962 directed "Hempen clear day" Alejandro Sieveking for the Ituch company.
He recorded "Dove I want to tell you" and "the mining song", included in the Lp "Folklore Chileno" of the group "Cuncumén" for the Emi-Odeon label. Between 1963 and 1968 he serves as Director of the Academy of Folklore from the House of the culture of Ñuñoa. Between 1963 and 1970 part, too, of the stable team of Directors of the Institute of the theatre of the University of Chile, Ituch. In the year 1963 is Assistant Director of Atahualpa del Cioppo in the Assembly of "The circle of chalk" by Bertolt Brecht, for the Ituch. The same year directed: "the invaders" Egon Wolf, for the Ituch: "Similar to happiness" of Alejandro Sieveking, to channel 9 Television of the University of Chile; and "Duo" of Raúl Ruiz, the company's four.
He works as Professor of performance between 1964 and 1967 in the school of theatre of the University of Chile. That same year "Animas of day light" Alejandro Sieveking with the Ituch reassembled and takes it on tour in the Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. A year later composed the music and directed the play "The settler" of Alejandro Sieveking, to the Ituch. He heads the Assembly of "La Maña" Ann Jellicoe, to stroke. You receive "Golden Laurel" award as best Director of the year by the Assembly of the two mentioned works and "La critique" of the circle of journalists award for "Best Director of the year", awarded by the Assembly of "La Maña".
Between 1966 and 1969 is Artistic Director of the ensemble, Quilapayún, and between 1966 and 1970, acts as a soloist in 'La Peña of the Parras'. In the year 1966: "The old house" Abelardo Estorino, directs to the Ituch; Assists in the direction to William Oliver in the Assembly of the work "Marat Sade" by Peter Weiss, also for the Ituch; Returns to mount and direct
In 1966 recorded his first LP "The settler" of Alejandro Sieveking, this time for Channel 9 Television of the University of Chile. 1966 is also the year of the onset of their first Lp as a soloist. Edit it the label "Sand" with the title "Víctor Jara". A year later, it is the Emi-Odeon label which publishes the "Víctor Jara" Lp and Cancion folk of America, along with Quilapayún. In the theatrical field, ride again "The settler". He was invited to England, as a theatre Director, by the British Council. They give 'The critics' award for his direction of "Entertainment to Mr. Sloane" work and the disc of silver of the label Emi-Odeon. In 1969 it carried out the Assembly of the work "Viet-rock" by Megan Terry, to the Ituch; and "settled" by Sophocles for the company of the school of theatre of the Catholic University. Guest lecturer at such school of theatre.
Achieved first prize in the "First Festival of the new song Chilean" with the subject "prayer to a Labrador". They invite you to travel to Helsinki to sing in a world youth rally by Viet Nam carried out in the capital of Finland. The Dicap label releases their Lp "put in your open hands". In the years 1972 and 1973, he composed the music of continuity for Televisión Nacional de Chile.
In the course of 1972 researches and collects testimonies in the population "Hermida's victory" that part of their Lp "Population" for the Dicap label. He directs the tribute to Pablo Neruda, in the National Stadium, to the poet's return to Chile after receiving the Nobel Prize.
Take part, in 1973, of the parliamentary election campaign, performing concerts in favor of the candidate of the Popular unity. He directs and participates as a singer in a cycle of television against the Civil war and fascism, welcoming the call made, in this regard, by Pablo Neruda. He made a tour of concerts in Peru, sponsored by the National Institute of culture of Lima. She works in the recording of his latest compositions for 2 Lps that hit to be edited. He recorded the Lp "Canto por Travesura", compilation of the picaresque folklore of Chile, which failed to go on sale.
On 11 September 1973 Jara part towards the technical State University, his place of work, where would sing at the opening of an exhibition, from which would go to the country the President Allende. Military surround the campus by entering in it the next day, taking detainees to all the teachers and students who were inside.
Victor Jara is taken to the Chile Stadium and tortured. Die riddled with 13 or 14 September. His body is found in the morgue as NN.
(Note: it is said that the military separated the hands of Victor Jara, but Joan Jara says that when she found the body of her husband, her wrists were broken.)
In 2001, more than 35,000 people attended the concert of homage offered by a group of artists at the National Stadium on the occasion of 69 years after the birth of the singer-songwriter. Groups Inti Illimani, Illapu and Gondwana, and Joe Vasconcellos singer gave life to the presentation, which was called 'With Victor Jara' always.
His mortal remains were exhumed by court order in June 2009 to determine the cause of his death. On November 27 of that same year the Victor Jara Foundation made public the results indicating that Victor Jara died from «multiple fractures from gunshot wounds that caused a hemorrhagic shock in a context of homicidal type» and was beaten and tortured to standing out more than 30 bone injury product of fractures caused by projectile wounds and others caused by blunt objects different from gunshot wounds.
Biography of Dian Fossey
(16/01/1932 - 1985/12/26)Dian Fossey
Was born on January 16, 1932 in Fairfax, California.
He spent a childhood miserable by the separation of his parents when he was just three years old. His stepfather gave him psychological abuse.
Obtained his degree in occupational therapy at San Jose State College in 1954 and spent several years working at a children's hospital in Kentucky. Since his arrival at the Centre are delivered entirely to the care of mentally disabled children, who seemed to have chosen as main companion in games and communication. Their gestural methods got closer than usual with these kids so needy of affection.
Inspired by the works of the American zoologist George B. Schaller, Fossey visited Africa in 19There he observed the gorillas of the mountains in their natural habitat and visited the British anthropologist Louis Leakey. This, convinced that the investigation of great apes could provide information about the problem of human evolution, encouraged Fossey to start a long field study of gorillas. He is revealed as an ingenious and patient observer of the behaviour of these animals. Karisoke, place to study, became International Centre for research on gorillas when founded the Karisoke Research Center in 19He was awarded in 1974 the degree of PhD in zoology from the University of Cambridge.
Poachers are entered into the territory of Virunga and Dian held interviews with the authorities in the area, laid traps to poachers and pursued them hard in the company of some low-paid Forest Rangers. Meanwhile, their stories published in National Geographic Magazine began to educate thousands of people. His work gorillas in the mist (1983) collects the observations made during the years of field studies.
Appeared dead in their camp on December 26, 1985, it was found in his hut attacked with machetes. Some experts believe that she was killed by the effort deployed in order to curb the poaching of gorillas and other animals in Africa.
Dian Fossey was buried in the cemetery which had been built for gorillas near your home. For years, the mystery about his death remained anchored in banishment, although it was finally revealed that the perpetrator of the crime had been Protais Ziriganyirago, a brother-in-law of Rwandan President and boss of poachers who killed gorillas. His life inspired the film gorillas in the mist, the same title as her book.
Biography of Paul Gauguin
(1848/06/07 - 1903/05/09)Paul Gauguin
He was born June 7, 1848 in Paris in the bosom of a family of middle class; his mother was the daughter of the famous Socialist and feminist Flora Tristan.
He had an adventurous youth, he lived four years in Peru with his family and more late works in the Merchant Navy at the age of seventeen, and then goes to the Navy, traveled for six years, visiting South America, Scandinavia and other parts of the world. He also worked as a stockbroker in Paris. In 1871 he joined a Paris securities brokerage firm and thanks to his work was able to enjoy a comfortable bourgeois life with his wife, Denmark's Mette-Sophie Gad, and their five children.
In 1874, after meeting the painter Camille Pissarro and see the first exhibition of the impressionists, makes collector and painter amateur. He exhibited with the Impressionists in 1876, 1880, 1881, 1882 and 18In 1882, due to the collapse of the stock market, he had forced to convert their hobby craft paint.
At the beginning of 1884 he moved to Rouen, where Pissarro lived. From 1886, separated from his family, he began to travel through Panama and Martinique along with his friend and artist Charles Laval. Between 1886 and 1891 he lived mainly in Britain, where he was the center of a small group of experimental painters known as the school of Pont-Aven. Under the influence of the painter Émile Bernard, moved away from Impressionism and adopted a style less naturalistic, which he called synthetism. He found inspiration in the indigenous art, in the medieval stained-glass Windows and the Japanese prints; He met the latter through Vincent van Gogh in 1888, during the two months that lived together in Arles, in the South of France. After the altercation in which Van Gogh tried to kill him, left the city.
His new style, marked by the absorption of influences from primitive art breton, was characterized by the use of large flat areas of lighted colors, as in the Yellow Christ (1889, Albright-Knox Gallery, Buffalo, NY, United States). In 1891, ruined and indebted, embarked towards Tahiti escaping from European civilization, a society "governed by the gold", and all that is artificial and conventional. To finance his trip, Gauguin organized an auction of his works and called on the Government a sponsorship. He returned to Paris two years later with four francs in his pocket.
Except for this visit to France between 1893 and 1895, remained the rest of his life in Tahiti and then in the Marquesas Islands. The essential features of his painting underwent few changes; It maintained chromatic expressiveness, rejection of the perspective and the use of broad and flat shapes. In the South seas, Gauguin immersed himself in endangered cultures of disappearance as the maori that found new sources of inspiration and energy for his art, something that would in turn influence the interest in primitive art of later artists like Picasso. Influenced by the tropical environment and Polynesian culture, his work was gaining expressive power as the subject became more characteristic, the major scale of his paintings and his simple compositions.
Its subject matter ranged from scenes of daily life, such as Tahitian or on the beach (1891, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France), even disturbing scenes of superstitious apprehension, as the spirit of the dead notes (1892, Albright-Knox Art Gallery )).
Its bold color experiments constitute the direct antecedent of Fauvism. The strength of its pictorial forms influenced the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch and later school expressionist. His masterpiece is the huge allegory, which is thus his pictorial Testament, from where we come from, what we are, where are we going? (1897, Museum of fine arts, Boston, United States), painted immediately before his suicide attempt.
A modest pension that sent you a dealer of art in Paris kept him until his death, on May 9, 1903 in the village of Atuana, island of Dominica (Marquesas Islands).
Biography of Anna Freud
(1895-12-03 - 1982/10/09)Anna Freud
Anna Freud Bernays
He was born on December 3, 1895 in Vienna (Austria).
Daughter of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays.
He received his Ph.d. in Leyesm, after which began to work as a teacher and worked closely with his father in the development of psychoanalytic theory and movement.
His short career of teacher provided the bases for its work, pioneer in the field of child psychology.
In 1938 they exiled together to the English City of London.
His work focused primarily on the functions of the self in the development of the personality, and the mechanisms that are put in place to adjust the impulses of the demands of the superego, especially repression, projection, rationalization, denial, the identification with the aggressor and reactive formations.
In 1947 was the founder of the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic, in London, a place where he worked as a Director since 1952.
He also helped found the annual psychoanalytic study of the child in 1945.
His main work, the I and the mechanisms of Defense (1936), has become a classic of psychology.
Anna Freud died in London on 9 October 1982.