Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Emile Zola
- Biography of Luigi Galvani
- Hirohito biography - Hiro-Hito
- Biography of Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon - Henri de Saint-Simon
Biography of Emile Zola
(1840/04/02 - 1902/09/29)Emile Zola
He was born on April 2, 1840 in Paris.
The son of an Italian engineer who on his death left the family in poverty.
Grew up in Aix-en-Provence, in whose school he studied the primary and met Paul Cézanne also had friendship with Édouard Manet, Camille Pissarro and the Goncourt brothers. Thanks to a scholarship he moved to Paris to study at the Lyceum of Saint Louis. He failed to finish high school and began working as an employee in the Publishing House Hachette.
He published his first work, Tales to Ninon, still under the influence of romanticism, in 1864, and in 1867 presented Thérèse Raquin, his first novel as naturalist, a psychological study of murder and passion. Interested in scientific experiments on inheritance, he wanted to write a novel that gets into all aspects of human life, giving to this new school of literary fiction name of naturalism that was intended to make a scientific analysis as those who had Charles Darwin and Karl Marx.
He wrote a series of twenty novels between 1871 and 1893, under the generic title of Les Rougon-Macquart. It was described as obscene and criticized for exaggerating the crime and often pathological behavior of the most disadvantaged classes. Some of the books that deal with the five generations of the family, achieved great popularity, including the tavern (1877), study on alcoholism; Nana, based on prostitution; Pot-bouille (1882), analysis of the claims of the middle class; Germinal (1885), story about the living conditions of the miners; La bête humaine (1890), which analyzes the homicidal tendencies; and the disaster (1892), a story about the fall of the Second Empire.
His later works, written from 1893, are less objective and more dogmatic. These series include three cities (1894-1898), including Lourdes (1894), Rome (1896) and Paris (1898). Also author of several books of literary criticism in which attacks the romantic writers. Best written critics is testing the experimental novel (1880) and the collection of essays the naturalistic novelists (1881). In January of 1898 was involved in the Dreyfusaffair, when he wrote an open letter that was published in the Parisian newspaper L'Aurore. It is the famous letter known as J'accuse ('accuse'), in which lashes out against the French authorities to pursue the artillery officer Jew Alfred Dreyfus, charged with treason. After the publication of this letter, he was banished to England for a year.
Émile Zola died in Paris, on 29 September 1902, poisoned by carbon monoxide that produced a chimney in disrepair.
Biography of Luigi Galvani
(1737/09/09 - 1798/12/04)Luigi Galvani
He was born September 9, 1737 in Bologna, where he studied theology.
Subsequently he studied medicine, specializing in Anatomy.
As Professor in the subject achieved a series of important findings, among them, have been the first to describe accurately the olfactory and auditory bird bodies.
In 1773, presented to the Academy of Bologna a monograph of its research work on the frogs had done for a long time.
In 1780 he built an electrostatic machine consisting of two different metals and natural fluids extracted from a dissected frog.
In other experiments applied current to the nerves of frog and observed and studied muscular contractions in the legs. The latter was what led to speculation widespread about a purported relationship of biology, chemistry and electricity, allowing to consider the electric current as an insert issue within the field of medicine.
His name is teaming up with electricity in terms galvanism and galvanization.
Luigi Galvani died on December 4, 1798 in Bologna.
Hirohito biography - Hiro-Hito
(1901-04-29 - 1989/01/07)Hirohito
He was born on April 29, 1901 in Tokyo. First son of Emperor Taisho.
At age seven he entered school of pairs and then the created for the Crown Prince, to conclude at the Military Academy, where he graduated as Lieutenant of the army and Navy Lieutenant, but he was ascending grade in both armed forces. She completed her studies in 1921.
It is the first Emperor of the Japanese dynasty in travel around Europe. He met the Princess Nagako in a dance, and they got married on January 26, 1924; they had five daughters and two sons.
In November 1921 he was declared Regent because a mental depression of his father; He abolished polygamy and the prohibition that had his subjects of direct our gaze to his person. He suffered three attacks. He became emperor in 1926 when died Taisho; the new emperor was a dynasty 124 ° 2,500 years old, and according to the custom of the emperors to choose a name for his reign, chose of Showa, which means 'radiant peace'. He received the clothes of royalty in Japan: a necklace, a sword and a mirror, in 19In addition to Emperor, had three degrees: Tenno Heika- Emperor Celeste; Mikado- Augusta door and Ara milestone Kari- divinity present and living.
Due to Japanese imperialism, in 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt did seize any export of oil to Japan from any part of the world; possible solutions were the Declaration of war against the United States or negotiation to cancel the lock, opted for the second alternative, even if the purpose was not achieved. He asked that Roosevelt received a declaration of war as thirty minutes before that began a bombardment of hostilities; on December 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Hirohito told his aides that he had not been opposed in 1941 to begin the war with the United States because otherwise it would have broken out a coup d ' état in the country and his desire was to preserve as the imperial system.
But from February 1945, Japan had virtually lost the war, Hirohito believed in the possibility of a negotiated peace, but United States only wanted the capitulation of Japan. He agreed to capitulate if it solved the dynastic issue, which was admitted. On August 15, 1945 ordered the cessation of fighting by radio. The capitulation had been signed on Board of the American battleship Missouri, it retained the throne but subject to the authority of the American general MacArthur.
In September, the Emperor offered to military trial by accepting the responsibility of every action and decision by Japan during the war. On December 15 he spoke his nation of the defeat of the Japan and publicly denied his divinity. The 1946 Constitution, it was as a symbol of the Japanese unit. Their heritage became a village; the titles of nobility were abolished and transformed the marital status of the Princes who were not sons and heirs of the emperor.
Hirohito died on January 7, 1989 in Tokyo .
Biography of Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon - Henri de Saint-Simon
(1760/10/17 - 19/05/1825)Henri de Saint-Simon
Claude Henri de Rouvroy
Comte de Saint-Simon
Born October 17, 1760 in Paris.
Just as a child, he moved to the United States to fight in the war of American independence. Of returned to France it supported the revolution and renounced his title.
He was one of the founders and theoreticians of modern socialism. He advocated the establishment of a social organization led by wise men that would benefit all members of society equally, better social organization would be based on the industry. His main work is the new Christianity (1825).
The count of Saint-Simon died in Paris on 19 may 18After his death his disciples popularized his ideas, and his principles and theories received the name of Saint-simonism.