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Indo-European Languages › Ancient History

Definition and Origins

by Cristian Violatti
published on 05 May 2014
Indo-European Language Family (Hayden120)

The Indo-European languages are a family of related languages that today are widely spoken in the Americas, Europe, and also Western and Southern Asia. Just as languages such as Spanish, French, Portuguese and Italian are all descended from Latin, Indo-European languages are believed to derive from a hypothetical language known as Proto-Indo-European, which is no longer spoken.
It is highly probable that the earliest speakers of this language originally lived around Ukraine and neighbouring regions in the Caucasus and Southern Russia, then spread to most of the rest of Europe and later down into India. The earliest possible end of Proto-Indo-European linguistic unity is believed to be around 3400 BCE.
Since the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language did not develop a writing system, we have no physical evidence of it. The science of linguistics has been trying to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European language using several methods and, although an accurate reconstruction of it seems impossible, we have today a general picture of what Proto-Indo-European speakers had in common, both linguistically and culturally. In addition to the use of comparative methods, there are studies based on the comparison of myths, laws, and social institutions.

THE ANCIENTS CAME UP WITH THE EXPLANATION THAT THE LATIN LANGUAGE WAS A DESCENDANT OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE.

BRANCHES OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

The Indo-European languages have a large number of branches: Anatolian, Indo-Iranian, Greek, Italic, Celtic, Germanic, Armenian, Tocharian, Balto-Slavic and Albanian.
Anatolian
This branch of languages was predominant in the Asian portion of Turkey and some areas in northern Syria. The most famous of these languages is Hittite. In 1906 CE, a large amount of Hittite finds were made on the site of Hattusas, the capital of the Hittite Kingdom, where about 10,000 cuneiform tablets and various other fragments were found in the remains of a royal archive. These texts date back to the mid to late second millennium BCE. Luvian, Palaic, Lycian, and Lydian are other examples of families belonging to this group.
All languages of this branch are currently extinct. This branch has the oldest surviving evidence of an Indo-European language, dated about 1800 BCE.
Indo-Iranian
This branch includes two sub-branches: Indic and Iranian. Today these languages are predominant in India, Pakistan, Iran, and its vicinity and also in areas from the Black Sea to western China.
Sanskrit, which belongs to the Indic sub-branch, is the best known among the early languages of this branch; its oldest variety, Vedic Sanskrit, is preserved in the Vedas, a collection of hymns and other religious texts of ancient India. Indic speakers entered into the Indian subcontinent, coming from central Asia around 1500 BCE: In the Rig- Veda, the hymn 1.131 speaks about a legendary journey that may be considered a distant memory of this migration.
Avestan is a language that forms part of the Iranian group. Old Avestan (sometimes called Gathic Avestan) is the oldest preserved language of the Iranian sub-branch, the “sister” of Sanskrit, which is the language used in the early Zoroastrian religious texts. Another important language of the Iranian sub-branch is Old Persian, which is the language found in the royal inscriptions of the Achaemenid dynasty, starting in the late 6th century BCE. The earliest datable evidence of this branch dates back to about 1300 BCE.
Today, many Indic languages are spoken in India and Pakistan, such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, and Bengali. Iranian languages such as Farsi (modern Persian), Pashto, and Kurdish are spoken in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.
Indo-European language family tree

Indo-European language family tree

Greek
Rather than a branch of languages, Greek is a group of dialects: During more than 3000 years of written history, Greek dialects never evolved into mutually incomprehensible languages. Greek was predominant in the southern end of the Balkans, the Peloponnese peninsula, and the Aegean Sea and its vicinity. The earliest surviving written evidence of a Greek language is Mycenaean, the dialect of the Mycenaean civilization, mainly found on clay tablets and ceramic vessels on the isle of Crete. Mycenaean did not have an alphabetic written system, rather it had a syllabic script known as the Linear B script.
The first alphabetic inscriptions have been dated back to the early 8th century BCE, which is probably the time when the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, reached their present form. There were many Greek dialects in ancient times, but because of Athens cultural supremacy in the 5th century BCE, it was the Athens dialect, called Attic, the one that became the standard literary language during the Classical period (480-323 BCE). Therefore, the most famous Greek poetry and prose written in Classical times were written in Attic: Aristophanes, Aristotle, Euripides, and Plato are just a few examples of authors who wrote in Attic.
Italic
This branch was predominant in the Italian peninsula. The Italic people were not natives of Italy ; they entered Italy crossing the Alps around 1000 BCE and gradually moved southward. Latin, the most famous language in this group, was originally a relatively small local language spoken by pastoral tribes living in small agricultural settlements in the centre of the Italian peninsula. The first inscriptions in Latin appeared in the 7th century BCE and by the 6th century BCE it had spread significantly.
Rome was responsible for the growth of Latin in ancient times. Classical Latin is the form of Latin used by the most famous works of Roman authors like Ovid, Cicero, Seneca, Pliny, and Marcus Aurelius. Other languages of this branch are: Faliscan, Sabellic, Umbrian, South Picene, and Oscan, all of them extinct.
Today Romance languages are the only surviving descendants of the Italic branch.
Map of Indo-Euopean Migrations

Map of Indo-Euopean Migrations

Celtic
This branch contains two sub-branches: Continental Celtic and Insular Celtic. By about 600 BCE, Celtic-speaking tribes had spread from what today are southern Germany, Austria, and Western Czech Republic in almost all directions, to France, Belgium, Spain, and the British Isles, then by 400 BCE, they also moved southward into northern Italy and southeast into the Balkans and even beyond. During the early 1st century BCE, Celtic-speaking tribes dominated a very significant portion of Europe. On 50 BCE, Julius Caesar conquered Gaul (ancient France) and Britain was also conquered about a century later by the emperor Claudius. As a result, this large Celtic-speaking area was absorbed by Rome, Latin became the dominant language, and the Continental Celtic languages eventually died out. The chief Continental language was Gaulish.
Insular Celtic developed in the British Isles after Celtic-speaking tribes entered around the 6th century BCE. In Ireland, Insular Celtic flourished, aided by the geographical isolation which kept Ireland relatively safe from the Roman and Anglo- Saxoninvasion.
The only Celtic languages still spoken today (Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh and Breton) all come from Insular Celtic.
Germanic
The Germanic branch is divided in three sub-branches: East Germanic, currently extinct; North Germanic, containing Old Norse, the ancestor of all modern Scandinavian languages; and West Germanic, containing Old English, Old Saxon, and Old High German.
The earliest evidence of Germanic-speaking people dates back to first half of the 1st millennium BCE, and they lived in an area stretching from southern Scandinavia to the coast of the North Baltic Sea. During prehistoric times, the Germanic speaking tribes came into contact with Finnic speakers in the north and also with Balto-Slavic tribes in the east. As a result of this interaction, the Germanic language borrowed several terms from Finnish and Balto-Slavic.
Several varieties of Old Norse were spoken by most Vikings. Native Nordic pre-Christian Germanic mythology and folklore has been also preserved in Old Norse, in a dialect named Old Icelandic.
Dutch, English, Frisian, and Yiddish are some examples of modern survivors of the West Germanic sub-branch, while Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish are survivors of the North Germanic branch.
Armenian
The origins of the Armenian-speaking people is a topic still unresolved. It is probable that the Armenians and the Phrygians belonged to the same migratory wave that entered Anatolia, coming from the Balkans around the late 2nd millennium BCE.The Armenians settled in an area around Lake Van, currently Turkey; this region belonged to the state of Urartu during the early 1st millennium BCE. In the 8th century BCE, Urartu came under Assyrian control and in the 7th century BCE, the Armenians took over the region. The Medes absorbed the region soon after and Armenia became a vassal state. During the time of the Achaemenid Empire, the region turned into a Persian satrap. The Persian domination had a strong linguistic impact on Armenian, which mislead many scholars in the past to believe that Armenian actually belonged to the Iranian group.
Tocharian
The history of the Tocharian-speaking people is still surrounded by mystery. We know that they lived in the Taklamakan Desert, located in western China. Most of the Tocharian texts left are translations from well-known Buddhist works, and all of these texts have been dated between the 6th and the 8th centuries CE. None of these texts speak about the Tocharians themselves.Two different languages belong to this branch: Tocharian A and Tocharian B. Remains of the Tocharian A language have only been found in places where Tocharian B documents have also been found, which would suggest that Tocharian A was already extinct, kept alive only as a religious or poetic language, while Tocharian B was the living language used for administrative purposes.
Many well-preserved mummies with Caucasoid features such as tall stature, red, blonde, and brown hair, have been discovered in the Taklamakan Desert, dating between 1800 BCE to 200 CE. The weaving style and patterns of their clothes is similar to the Hallstatt culture in central Europe. Physical analysis and genetic evidence have revealed resemblances with the inhabitants of western Eurasia.
This branch is completely extinct. Among all ancient Indo-European languages, Tocharian was spoken farthest to the east.
Balto-Slavic
This branch contains two sub-branches: Baltic and Slavic.
During the late Bronze Age, the Balts' territory may have stretched from around western Poland all the way across to the Ural Mountains. Afterwards, the Balts occupied a small region along the Baltic Sea. Those in the northern part of the territory occupied by the Balts were in close contact with Finnic tribes, whose language was not part of the Indo-European language family: Finnic speakers borrowed a considerable amount of Baltic words, which suggests that the Balts had an important cultural prestige in that area. Under the pressure of Gothic and Slavic migrations, the territory of the Balts was reduced towards the 5th century CE.
Archaeological evidence shows that from 1500 BCE, either the Slavs or their ancestors occupied an area stretching from near the western Polish borders towards the Dnieper River in Belarus. During the 6th century CE, the Slav-speaking tribes expanded their territory, migrating into Greece and the Balkans: this is when they are mentioned for the first time, in Byzantine records referring to this large migration. Either some or all of the Slavs were once located further to the east, in or around Iranian territory, since many Iranian words were borrowed into pre-Slavic at an early stage. Later on, as they moved westward, they came into contact with German tribes and again borrowed several additional terms.
Only two Baltic languages survive today: Latvian and Lithuanian. A large number of Slavic languages survive today, such as Bulgarian, Czech, Croatian, Polish, Serbian, Slovak, Russian, and many others.
Albanian
Albanian is the last branch of Indo-European languages to appear in written form. There are two hypotheses on the origin of Albanian. The first one says that Albanian is a modern descendant of Illyrian, a language which was widely spoken in the region during classical times. Since we know very little about Illyrian, this assertion can be neither denied nor confirmed from a linguistic standpoint. From a historical and geographical perspective, however, this assertion makes sense. Another hypotheses says that Albanian is a descendant of Thracian, another lost language that was spoken farther east than Illyrian.
Today Albanian is spoken in Albania as the official language, in several other areas in of the former Yugoslavia and also in small enclaves in southern Italy, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia.
Unaffiliated Languages
All languages in this group are either extinct or they are a former stage of a modern language. Examples of this groups of languages are Phrygian, Thracian, Ancient Macedonian (not to be confused with Macedonian, a language currently spoken in the Republic of Macedonia, part of the Slavic branch), Illyrian, Venetic, Messapic, and Lusitanian.

INDO-EUROPEAN HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS

In ancient times it was noticed that some languages presented striking similarities: Greek and Latin are a well-known example.During classical antiquity it was noted, for example, that Greek héks “six” and heptá “seven” were similar to the Latin sex and septem. Furthermore, the regular correspondence of the initial h- in Greek to the initial s- in Latin was pointed out.
The explanation that the ancients came up with was that the Latin language was a descendant of Greek language. Centuries later, during and after the Renaissance, the close similarities between more languages were also noted, and it was understood that certain groups of languages were related, such as Icelandic and English, and also the Romance languages. Despite all of these observations, the science of linguistics did not develop much further until the 18th century CE.
During the British colonial expansion into India, a British orientalist and jurist named Sir William Jones became familiar with the Sanskrit language. Jones was also knowledgeable in Greek and Latin and was surprised by the similarities between these three languages. During a lecture on February 2, 1786 CE, Sir William Jones expressed his new ideas:
The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists; there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family, if this were the place for discussing any question concerning the antiquity of Persia. (Fortson, p. 9)
The idea that Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, and Persian were derived from a common source was revolutionary at that time. This was a turning point in the history of linguistics. Rather than the “daughter” of Greek, Latin was for the first time understood as the “sister” of Greek. By becoming familiar with Sanskrit, a language geographically far removed from Greek and Latin, and realizing that chance was an insufficient explanation for the similarities between these languages, Sir William Jones presented a new insight which triggered the development of modern linguistics.

The Barracks Emperors › Antique Origins

Definition and Origins

by Joshua J. Mark
published on 13 November 2017
Tetricus I (The Creative Assembly)

The “ Barracks Emperors ” is a term coined by later historians referring to the Roman emperors who were chosen and supported by the army during the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). In 235 CE Emperor Alexander Severus (222-235 CE) was assassinated by his troops who then chose their commander Maximinus Thrax (235-238 CE) as ruler. Maximinus became the first of these so-called “barracks emperors” who would continue to rule Rome right through the reign of Carinus (283-285 CE) and who characterize the period of instability in Rome during this period. The Crisis of the Third Century was resolved by Emperor Diocletian (284-305 CE) who addressed the causes of the crisis and secured the future of Rome.
The barracks emperors rose in response to a series of threats to the stability of the state, both internal and external. The Severan Dynasty, of which Alexander was the last, had begun a practice of enlarging the army while also increasing a soldier's pay. In order to afford this large military, Septimus Severus (193-211 CE) debased the currency by adding less precious metal to coins in order to produce more of them. This policy would be adhered to by later emperors and resulted in widespread inflation and a lack of confidence in purchasing power on the part of the citizens.

BARRACKS EMPERORS WERE CHOSEN BY THE MILITARY BASED ON POPULARITY WITH THE TROOPS, GENEROSITY TOWARD THE MILITARY, & ABILITY TO ATTAIN IMMEDIATE & DISCERNIBLE RESULTS.

In addition to the currency problems, a plague swept the land, depopulating and destabilizing communities, the labor force.Further, incursions by barbarian tribes across Roman borders were also upsetting the social and economic balance of the state. At the same time, the Severan Dynasty's elevation of the military (more necessary than ever to combat invasions and other external threats) placed the emperor in an almost subordinate position to his army's commanders. Emperors now felt they had to placate and court the favor of the soldiers rather than objectively govern for the good of all the citizens of Rome.
The emperor had always relied on the support of the military to some degree but now such support became more imperative.Whereas in the past an emperor came to power through a system of succession – either as the son or adopted heir of the sitting emperor – he was now chosen by the military based on his popularity with the troops, generosity toward the military, and his ability to attain immediate and discernible results. When any of these criteria were disappointed – especially the last – he was assassinated and replaced by another. This paradigm characterized all of the barracks emperors and is the major difference between them and those who ruled before and after the Crisis of the Third Century.

THE EMPERORS & THEIR REIGNS

The barracks emperors were all unique individuals with their own strengths and weaknesses, triumphs and failures but, generally speaking, were defined by a desire for the personal benefits of power without possessing the character to wield that power effectively. Because of the uncertainty of the times and the real or perceived threat of imminent invasion on the part of the populace, the Senate, and the military, a man who showed himself a strong, courageous, and – most importantly – effective military leader would be chosen as emperor by his troops. This decision was then either supported by the Roman Senate based on the person's reputation or forced on the Senate and the people by the military.
Throughout the Crisis of the Third Century, there were over 20 emperors who rose quickly to power and, in many cases, were dispatched just as fast. Even a man who would have been an able and acceptable emperor in another time might be found wanting in this period, and there was no margin for error in how an emperor comported himself or led military campaigns. Any sign of weakness or ineffectuality could be considered just cause to remove an emperor and replace him with a better.
The barracks emperors and their respective achievements, as well as their timely or untimely ends, were:
Maximinus Thrax (235-238 CE), a Thracian commander who, owing to his nationality, feared he would not be respected by the Senate or citizenry and so chose to carve out his own fame through campaigns in Germany. Although successful, these campaigns were so costly that they drained the treasury. Maximinus operated on his own whims, disregarding the pressure put on his troops or the general good of the empire. His reign resulted in civil war, as the Senate elevated others who were sent to remove him. He was killed by his own commanders in an effort to end the hostilities.
Gordian I and Gordian II (238 CE, March-April) were father and son who took part in the attempt to overthrow Maximinus.Gordian II was killed in battle fighting pro-Maximinus forces and Gordian I committed suicide upon hearing of his son's death.
Balbinus and Pupienus (238 CE, April-July) were two emperors the Senate raised to oppose Maximinus. They were unpopular with the people, who actually pelted them with stones as they walked in the street, and were eventually assassinated by the Praetorian Guard.
Gordian III (238-244 CE) co-ruled with Balbinus and Pupienus until they were assassinated and was then proclaimed emperor by the military supporters of Gordian I and Gordian II. He was only 13 years old when he came to power and was controlled by his mother and later by his father-in-law. His reign was considered ineffective, and he was assassinated, probably by his successor Philip the Arab.
Gordian III

Gordian III

Philip the Arab (244-249 CE) also known as Julius Philippus was the Praetorian Prefect under Gordian III and took power after assassinating him. To assure a smooth succession, he made his son, Philip II, his co-emperor and embarked on a number of successful campaigns. He concluded a peace with Persia and won a number of victories over the Goths after which he celebrated Rome's 1000th anniversary as a city. The provincial army commanders disliked him, however, and he was killed in battle by one of them: his successor Decius. Phillip II was assassinated soon after his father's death.
Decius (249-251 CE) was a senator and consul before being appointed to a command in the Danube region where he rose to power with the support of his troops. He inaugurated the systematic persecution of the Christian sect by requiring citizens to make sacrifices to the state gods in the presence of officials. This policy and the resultant martyrdom of many Christians did nothing but popularize the new faith. He followed Philip's policy and made his son his co-emperor, but both were killed in battle fighting the Goths under King Cniva at the Battle of Abritus in 251 CE.
Hostilian (251 CE, June-November), the younger son of Decius, was made co-emperor by Gallus when Decius was killed in battle. He died soon after from the plague.
Gallus (251-253 CE) was a commander under Decius who became emperor upon his death. He also made his son, Volusianus, co-emperor; both were assassinated by their own troops who elevated Aemilianus.
Aemilianus (253 CE, August-October), was a regional governor chosen by the troops who proved disappointing and so was quickly assassinated in favor of Valerian.
Valerian (253-260 CE) made his son Gallienus co-emperor as he realized the empire was too large for one man to govern.Gallienus was responsible for the western part and Valerian for the eastern section of the realm. On campaign in the east, he was captured by the Sassanid Persians and died as their prisoner. He was the first Roman emperor ever to be captured by the enemy and, as he followed Decius' policy of severely persecuting Christians, this was seized upon by the Christian sect as an act of their god and vindication of their sect.
Valerian Defeated by Shapur I

Valerian Defeated by Shapur I

Gallienus (253-268 CE) was an effective ruler and military leader who managed to control the chaos of the Roman Empire to the extent that cultural, literary, and philosophical advances developed under his reign. He also initiated a number of important changes in the military, most notably expanding the role of the cavalry. Even so, he could not escape the climate of the times and was assassinated by his own troops on campaign in a conspiracy involving the future emperor Aurelian.
Claudius Gothicus (268-270 CE) was an officer of the cavalry under Gallienus who proved himself an able leader and administrator. He defeated the Alamanni, put down a rebellion by the would-be usurper Aureolus, and received his honorary epithet “Gothicus” following his victories over the Goths. Claudius might have gone on to greater accomplishments but was stricken by the plague and died.
Quintillus (270 CE), the brother of Claudius Gothicus, came to power briefly following the latter's death but died soon after, probably assassinated by Aurelian.
Aurelian (270-275 CE) was a co-commander of Gallienus' cavalry with Claudius and, when Claudius came to power, served under him. Aurelian, like Gallienus and Claudius, is one of the few Barracks Emperors who placed the good of Rome above his own personal ambition. He restored the empire by securing its borders and bringing the breakaway territories of the Gallic and Palmyrene empires back under Roman control. Still, none of these accomplishments was enough to protect him, and he was assassinated by his commanders who feared he planned to have them executed.
Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Aurelian

Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Aurelian

Tacitus (275-276 CE) was an elderly senator selected by the Senate as emperor following Aurelian's assassination. He ruled for only nine months, during which he was engaged in constant warfare before he died either of natural causes or – more likely – was assassinated.
Florianus (276) was the brother of Tacitus and reigned for only three months before he was assassinated by his own troops in favor of Probus.
Probus (276-282 CE) was enthusiastically supported by his troops in the Balkan region and became emperor on the death of Florianus. His reign was marked by almost continual military campaigns but, as he had a background in farming, he emphasized the importance of agriculture between engagements. This interest, according to one report, may have led to his downfall. One of his officers, Carus, became increasingly popular with the men who made him emperor while Probus was assassinated by troops who had grown tired of forced agricultural labor.
Carus (282-283 CE) was the prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Probus and avenged his former emperor's murder after he came to power. He made his sons Numerian and Carinus co-emperors and placed them in control of the west while he campaigned toward the east against the Sassanid Persians. He was reportedly killed on campaign when struck by lightning.
Numerian and Carinus (283-285 CE), Carus' sons, were co-emperors after their father's death. They both led military campaigns in attempts to secure the borders, and Carinus also successfully put down a revolt from within the empire.Numerian developed an eye disease, and either died of natural causes or was assassinated, while Carinus was killed by his own troops in battle with his successor Diocletian.
Along with these barracks emperors, there were two other rulers whose actions would have a significant impact on Rome's course during the crisis: Postumus (260-269 CE) in the west, who founded the Gallic Empire, and Zenobia (267-272 CE) in the east, queen of the Palmyrene Empire.

BREAKAWAY EMPIRES

Roman Empire 271 CE

Roman Empire 271 CE

In 260 CE, Postumus marched on Cologne, took the city, and executed Saloninus and Silvanus; he then proclaimed himself emperor of the region. He sent messages to Gallienus explaining why he had acted as he did, professing his loyalty to Rome, and promising that he would not raise arms against the empire or encroach on any Roman territories. In spite of this, Gallienus could not afford to allow such a large segment of his empire – Gaul, Germania, Hispania, and Britannia – to simply leave. In 263 CE Gallienus drove his troops into Gaul in an attempt to dislodge Postumus but was wounded by an arrow in battle and withdrew.
Postumus continued his reign, and kept his promise to protect and defend Rome, until he was killed by his own troops in 269 CE when he refused to allow them to sack one of his own cities (modern-day Mainz) which had rebelled. A blacksmith (and possibly foot-solider in the army) named Marius (269 CE) was then proclaimed emperor by the troops but was assassinated shortly afterwards, and the Praetorian tribune Victorinus (269-271 CE) became emperor. Although Victorinus was an able military commander, his inability to keep his hands off other men's wives led to his murder by one of his commanders, and the usurper Domitianus (271 CE) took control. He was defeated in battle by Tetricus I (271-274 CE), an able administrator and military leader and considered the only true successor to Postumus.
Tetricus I made his son (also named Tetricus) co-emperor to share the responsibilities of government and run the empire more efficiently. He stabilized the region, putting down rebellions by the German tribes, but his reign was interrupted – and then ended – by Aurelian in 274 CE at the Battle of Chalons. Aurelian marched on the Gallic Empire after defeating and reabsorbing the Palmyrene Empire which had formed under the queen Zenobia, wife of the late Roman governor of the region, Odaenthus.
Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus

Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus

When Valerian was captured in 260 CE, and Gallienus could do nothing about it, the Roman governor of Syria, Odaenthus, raised an army and attacked the Persians. Although he failed to free Valerian, he did push the Persian forces back from the borders of the eastern side of the Roman empire. He further served Gallienus by helping put down a rebellion inside the empire by a would-be usurper, and for these efforts, Gallienus made him governor of the entire eastern part of the empire which ran from Syria down through the Levant.
Odaenthus was killed on a hunting trip in 266/267 CE, and his wife Zenobia became regent for their young son Vaballathus.Zenobia, like Postumus, was careful not to alienate her realm from Rome or antagonize the emperor but entered into negotiations with neighboring states, annexed Egypt, issued her own currency, and had herself and her son addressed by titles reserved only for the ruling family of Rome.
She had her own court, her own seal, her own commander-in-chief, and her own army, and was empress of her own empire in everything but official title. She seems to have hoped, like Postumus, that by remaining on good terms with Rome and performing military services which only benefited the empire, that she would be left alone to rule her region and her son might one day be chosen emperor.
Zenobia was, in fact, left alone while the emperors of Rome were engaged in their perpetual warfare with outside threats and each other, but when Aurelian came to power, he turned his attention east as quickly as possible. At the Battle of Immae in 272 CE, he defeated Zenobia's forces and drove her back to Emessa where, in a second engagement, he was again victorious. With Zenobia defeated and her Palmyrene Empire again joined to Rome, Aurelian marched west and defeated Tetricus I in 274 CE, ending the Gallic Empire.
Aurelian showed mercy to both Zenobia and Tetricus I, as well as most of the cities and towns he marched on, and after restoring the empire set himself to the task of remedying the underlying causes of the Crisis of the Third Century. It is likely that he thought his show of mercy to his enemies would dissuade future rebellions but never found out as he was assassinated in 275 CE by his commanders.

DIOCLETIAN'S REFORMS

The Crisis of the Third Century and the reign of barracks emperors would continue after Aurelian until Diocletian came to power in 284 CE. Diocletian developed the policies of the best of the barracks emperors, Gallienus and Aurelian, in reforming the military, tightening the borders of the empire, and also introducing reforms in currency and the government. His tetrarchy (rule of four) divided the operation of the government between two men who had successors already in place when they took their positions; this ensured ease of succession and prevented the rise of would-be usurpers.
The time of the crisis and the barracks emperors passed into history as Diocletian went further in dividing the empire in two – the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire – as he realized the realm had grown too vast to be governed by one man or even by four. The mistake made by most of the barracks emperors was the belief that one could wield political power primarily for one's individual benefit rather than the good of one's state and fellow citizens. Consequently, they could easily be replaced when their methods or personal choices no longer suited the military or citizens. Neither of these groups had anything to lose in replacing one selfish ruler with another more to their liking. This model became so accepted that not even the best of the emperors could feel secure in their positions. Only after Diocletian's reforms would the model change and ensure the future of Rome for the next generations.

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