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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Niels Bohr
- Biography of José Clemente Orozco
- Biography of Thomas Alva Edison
- Biography of Michael Jackson
Biography of Niels Bohr
(1885/10/07 - 18/12/1962)Niels Bohr
Danish physicist, Nobel Laureate
He was born on October 7, 1885 in Copenhagen. Son of a Professor of Physiology.
He studied at the University of his native city, his doctorate degree in 19In that same year he traveled to study at the University of Cambridge (England) with the intention of studying Nuclear Physics with Joseph John Thomson, although he soon moved to the University of Manchester to work with Ernest Rutherford.
His theory of atomic structure, which earned him the Nobel Prize in physics in 1922, published a memoir between 1913 and 19His work revolved around the nuclear Atom model of Rutherford, in which the atom looks like a compact nucleus surrounded by a swarm of lighter electrons . The model establishes that an atom emits electromagnetic radiation only when an electron of the atom jumps out of a quantum level to another.
In the year 1916, he returned to the University of Copenhagen to teach physics, and in 1920 he was appointed director of the Institute of theoretical physics of the University. There, he developed a theory that relates to the quantum numbers of the atoms with large systems that follow classical laws. He made many other important contributions to theoretical nuclear physics, including the development of the model of the liquid drop from the core and work on nuclear fission. He showed that uranium 235 is the isotope of uranium which undergoes nuclear fission.
He returned to Denmark, where he was forced to remain after the German occupation of the country in 19However, he managed to escape to Sweden with great danger. From there, he traveled to England and finally to the United States, where he joined the team working on the construction of the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos (New Mexico), until its explosion in 19He objected to that the project will take place in secret that he feared the consequences of this new invention.
In 1945, he returned to the University of Copenhagen, where he immediately began to develop peaceful uses for Atomic Energy. He organized the first Conference 'atoms for peace' in Geneva, held in 1955, and two years later received the first prize of 'Atoms for peace'.
Niels Bohr died on December 18, 1962 in Copenhagen.
Biography of José Clemente Orozco
(23/11/1883 - 1949/09/07)José Clemente Orozco
Mexican muralist painter
Was born on November 23, 1883 in Zapotlán, Jalisco.
When he was 7 years old he moved to Mexico City where he studied at the national preparatory school and at the National School of fine arts.
He met Antonio Fabres, a catalan teacher who demanded much from his students. He sent them that they copied natural photographically. It worked by drawing cartoons for newspapers signing as "the son of el Ahuizote" and "Machete".
He knew the work of the engraver José Guadalupe Posada, whose influence marked all his work. He married Margarita Valladares , with whom he had 3 children.
In 1922 he joined Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros in the Union of painters and sculptors, trying to recover the art of mural painting under the patronage of the Government. One of his most important works was the series of murals that made for national school high school about the conquest, colonization, and the Mexican Revolution.
From 1927 to 1934 he worked in the United States. There was a group of murals for the New School for Social Research in New York and Pomona College in California , Prometheus painted a mural with the theme of the Greek hero. His murals for the Baker library at Dartmouth College (1932-1934) staged in American history series with the arrival of Quetzalcoatl, the return of Quetzalcoatl and Modern industrial man.
When I go back to Mexico he did murals at the Palacio de Bellas Artes (1934) and the Supreme Court (1941) in Mexico D.F., in addition to various series in major institutions of the city of Guadalajara, as the Government Palace, the University or the Hospicio Cabañas. During the 1940s he painted some canvases.
In 1946 he was awarded with the National prize of Arts.
José Clemente Orozco died in Mexico City on September 7, 19He was buried in the Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres.
There are collections of his drawings and pictures of Ridge in the Museum workshop of Orozco in Guadalajara and the Carrillo Gil Museum in the capital.
Biography of Thomas Alva Edison
(1847/02/11 - 18/10/1931)Thomas Edison
Thomas Alva Edison
An experience is never a failure, because it goes to show something.
He was born on February 11, 1847 in Milan (Ohio). Son of a flea markets of Dutch origin and a governess of low cultural level.
He only attended the school for three months in Port Huron (Michigan). Teachers who attended him only during his life who stayed in school called it «delayed student». His mother was responsible for giving the basic training. When Thomas was ten years old, was concerned about providing books of science, particularly physics, and even of putting a small laboratory of chemistry at home. At the age of 12 he began to sell newspapers on the train that made the route between Port Duron and Detroit, while I was dedicated in his spare time experimenting with printing presses and various mechanical and electrical appliances. He bought an old machine to print that found used, installed it on a train, and with the news that could find out, became a newspaper for travelers. Thus was born his Weekly Herald. In 1862 he published a weekly newspaper, the Grand Trunk Herald, printed in a goods wagon which also served him as a laboratory.
After a courageous feat that saved the life of the son of a Chief of station, they are rewarded with the completion of a course of telegraphy. During his work as a Telegraphoperator, he created his first important invention, a Telegraph Repeater, which could be transmitted messages automatically to a second line while the operator was present. After some time as a telegraph operator, Edison managed a job in Boston (Massachusetts) and spent all his free time to research.
During his work at the New York Gold and Stock Telegraph Company, he managed to improve the equipment and the services of the company. He won $40,000 selling Telegraph accessories and could mount its own laboratory in 18He then managed an automatic telegraph system that improved the quality and speed of transmission. His great invention within telegraphy was the creation of machines that allowed the simultaneous transmission of various messages by a line, which resulted in the increase of the usefulness of the existing telegraph lines. The invention of Edison's carbon telephone transmitter was very important for the development of the telephone, which had been patented recently by the American physicist Alexander Graham Bell.
In 1877, he announced that he had invented a phonograph through which you could record sound on a tinfoil cylinder. In 1879 his bulb or incandescent electric bulb, publicly exhibited his most important invention. He had a great success, so it soon began the improvement of light bulbs and the dynamos to generate the necessary electric current.
In 1882 he developed and installed the first large power station in the world in New York. However, later, its use of DC was displaced before the system developed by American Inventors George Westinghouseand Nikola Tesla alternating current . Five years later he moved his factory from Menlo Park to West Orange (New Jersey) where he created a great laboratory for experimentation and research. (His house and his lab were converted into Museum in 1955).
In 1888 he invented the Kinetoscope, the first machine that produced films through a rapid succession of individual images. Other inventions that should be noted are: the Edison battery (an alkaline nickel-iron battery), result of thousands of experiments, the microtasimetro (used for the detection of temperature changes) and a method of wireless telegraphy to communicate with trains moving. In 1883, Edison discovered an effect that will bear his name -Edison effect-, consisting of the emission of electrons by the incandescent metal. This jet of electrons emitted by a filament and collected by a plate will be based it castable on which develop the most advanced techniques of broadcasting and television. The principle is already the same, until the discovery of the transistor which, somehow, will follow the same process. The changes produced by the light and the sound will be applied to the electronic stream in such a way that, through him, are converted back into sounds or pictures bright in our radio or television receivers.
At the beginning of World War I, he designed, built and managed factories for the manufacture of benzene, phenol and anilinederivatives. In 1915 he was named President of the Council Adviser of the United States Navy, who allowed him to make valuable discoveries. In total, he created more than a thousand inventions.
In 1878 they named Knight of the Legion of Honor French and in 1889 Knight Commander of the same. In 1892 he was awarded the Albert medal of the Royal Society of the arts of Great Britain , and in 1928 won the Gold medal of the United States Congress "for the development and application of inventions that have revolutionized civilization in the last century".
Thomas Edison died in West Orange, New Jersey, on October 18, 1931.
Biography of Michael Jackson
(1958-08-29 - 2009/06/25)Michael Jackson
Michael Joseph Jackson
Was born on August 29, 1958 in Gary, Indiana.
Seventh son of Katherine Esther Scruse and Joseph Walter Jackson, a worker of a metallurgical industry. He was raised as a Jehovah's witness by his mother.
Four years Michael sang professionally and with five formed part of the Group of his brothers, known as the Jackson Five. In 1968 they signed with Motown Records and the family moved to Los Angeles, California.
With the sponsorship of Berry Gordy's, became famous thanks to its records (released by Motown) sold 8 million copies. Their first album Got to Be There (1971), gave him fame as a solo artist. Michael Jackson was a scarecrow in the film musical The Wiz (1978) and recorded the album Off the Wall (1979) with several of his compositions.
Thriller (1982), the video of the theme that gave name to the album, revolutionized the industry, because it lasted more minutes than normal and it appeared to the King of pop turned into zombie and werewolf. Of the nine themes that form the disk, seven were singles, such as "Billie Jean", "Beat it'or the Duet with Paul McCartney' The Girl is mine", and seven were also among the top ten of the Billboard American, won eight Grammy Awards , and became the biggest selling album in history.
Joined again his brothers on a tour of six months, when the Jacksons scientiststo disk Victory (1984). In that same year and during production of a Pepsi Ad suffered burns and hair was burnt him after an explosion. He was composer alongside Lionel Richie's song 'We Are the World' (1985), subject who played a group of more than forty famous singers; all the profits from sales of the album and video were donated to organizations in the fight against hunger.
Michael Jackson took the publishing rights of the songs of the Beatles, by those who paid $ 40 million and what lost the friendship of Paul McCartney. By then the media continuously released numerous rumours as: sleeping in a Chamber of oxygen, wants to buy the remains of the "Elephant Man", hates being black, and becomes white, etc. He regularly used a black bracelet to remind children suffering around the world. The singer patented a device for shoes that allowed them to lean forward at an angle. It was Godfather at the wedding of Liza Minnelli with David Gest. Michael Jackson suffered from misofobia: fear of contamination with dirt and germs. Jackson was also a vegetarian.
"The King of Pop" was nicknamed and in 1991 signed a contract with Sony for $ 65 million. Before, the album Bad (1987) was a best-seller, as well as Dangerous (1992) and the single 'Remember the Time' (1992) which followed History-Past, Present and Future- (1995) and Blood on the dance floor (1997).
Ricola candy dissolved in hot water he drank before concerts. Such as the robot and the moonwalk dance moves popularized (in 1988 published his autobiography titled Moonwalk). Jackson sold more than 750 million albums worldwide during his career; He won a total of 13 Grammy Awards, 23 American Music Awards, and the video of his song Billie Jean, was the first black artist in MTV. Your total earnings in her life are estimated at 500 million dollars.
In 1993, Michael Jackson was sued for alleged sexual abuse of a minor. He married Lisa Marie Presley, daughter of Elvis Presley, in the Dominican Republic. Four months later, the case of alleged sexual abuse against children is sobreseido. His marriage to Lisa-Marie Presley lasted only 19 months. Later their first child was married to Debbie, who was his nurse and had Prince. In 1998 had her second child, a girl that called Paris. It agreed in 1994 to pay a sum of $ 23 million to the family of a teenager who accused him of sexual abuse, according to Court TV, a channel specializing in court cases. According to the court document, the transfer of this amount should not be considered as a proof that Jackson had a bad behavior"toward the young. The document adds that the singer agreed to pay only to avoid such allegations to disturb the evolution of his career.
In February 2003 released the report 'Living with Michael Jackson', in which the singer admitted to sleeping with children. The relatives the musician were frightened to the consequences that could have then tried to avoid them. "The fact that rationalize their behavior on television was the beginning of his downfall." In July 2004, he was accused by prosecutors at a hearing in the Court of Santa Maria (California, West), to build his estate 'Neverland' ('land of Neverland'), to seduce, abduct and sexually abusing children. The judge decided to postpone the start of the process to the January 31, 20June 13, 2005, Michael Jackson was found not guilty by the jury at the trial for alleged sexual abuse of a minor. The verdict vindicated the star of pop music, who insisted he was the victim of a scam headed by the family who accused him and a Prosecutor with eagerness for revenge.
June 25, 2009 paramedics who came to the home of the singer confirmed that he was not breathing and after undergoing a cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he was transferred to the hospital of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), where he arrived in deep coma. His last words were: "This is it... this really is it" (this is... this really is). His death was officially confirmed at 1430 local time Californian. Jackson was about to start a series of concerts in London that his return to the stage. The singer had three sons.
On November 7, 2011 physician Conrad Murray was found guilty of manslaughter in the Court of the County of Los Angeles Superior, where it was judged as single defendant for the death of Michael Jackson. The twelve members of the jury reached the verdict for unanimity.