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Abu Nasr Muhammad Al- Farabi… Adalbert Czerny… Agnes Robertson Arber… Al-Battan:… Scientists › Multiposts


Biographies of Famous Scientists

Biographies of Famous Scientists, his life and achievements

Biographies of Famous Scientists:

  1. Who is Abu Nasr Muhammad al- Farabi: Biography
  2. Who is Adalbert Czerny: Biography
  3. Who is Agnes Robertson Arber: Biography
  4. Who is Ahmed Hassan Zewai: Biography
  5. Who is Al-Battani: Biography
  6. Who is Alan Turing: Biography
  7. Who is Albert Abraham Michelson: Biography
  8. Who is Alberto Santos-Dumont: Biography
  9. Who is Albrecht von Haller: Biography
  10. Who is Aldo Leopold: Biography
  11. Who is Alexander Bain: Biography
  12. Who is Alexander Brongniart: Biography
  13. Who is Alexander Fleming: Biography

Who is Abu Nasr Muhammad al- Farabi: Biography

Abu Nasr Muhammad al- Farabi, one the earliest Islamic intellectuals who were instrumental in transmitting the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle to the Muslim world, had a considerable influence on the later Islamic philosophers such as Avicenna. He was an outstanding linguist who translated the Greek works on Aristotle and Plato and made a considerable additions to them of his own.
He earned the nickname Mallim-e-Sani, which is translated as “second master” or “second teacher”.

Early Life:

Al-Farabi completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, later on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time. During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of knowledge and technology. Farabi contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music, but the major ones are in philosophy, logic and sociology and for which he stands out as an Encyclopedist.

Contributions and Achievements:

As a philosopher, Farabi was the first to separate philosophy from theology. It is difficult to find a philosopher both in Muslim and Christian world from Middle Ages onwards who has not been influenced by his views. He believed in a Supreme Being who had created the world through the exercise of balanced intelligence. He also asserted this same rational faculty to be the sole part of the human being that is immortal, and thus he set as the paramount human goal the development of that rational faculty. He considerably gave more attention to political theory as compared to any Islamic philosopher.
Later in his work, Al-Farabi laid down in Platonic fashion the qualities necessary for the ruler, he should be inclined to rule by good quality of a native character and exhibit the right attitude for such rule. At the heart of Al-Farabi’s political philosophy is the concept of happiness in which people cooperate to gain contentment. He followed the Greek example and the highest rank of happiness was allocated to his ideal sovereign whose soul was ‘united as it were with the Active Intellect’. Therefore Farabi served as a tremendous source of aspiration for intellectuals of the middle ages and made enormous contributions to the knowledge of his day, paving the way for the later philosopher and thinkers of the Muslim world.
Farabian epistemology has both a Neoplatonic and an Aristotelian dimension. The best source for al-Farabi’s classification of knowledge is his Kitab ihsa al-ulum. This work neatly illustrates Al-Farabi’s beliefs, both esoteric and exoteric. Through all of them runs a primary Aristotelian stress on the importance of knowledge. Thus al-Farabi’s epistemology, from what has been described may be said to be encyclopedic in range and complex in articulation, using both a Neoplatonic and an Aristotelian voice.
Farabi also participated in writing books on early Muslim sociology and a notable book on music titled Kitab al-Musiqa (The Book of Music) which is in reality a study of the theory of Persian music of his day, although in the West it has been introduced as a book on Arab music. He invented several musical instruments, besides contributing to the knowledge of musical notes. It has been reported that he could play his instrument so well as to make people laugh or weep at will. Al-Farabi’s treatise Meanings of the Intellect dealt with music therapy, where he discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul.

Later Life:

Farabi traveled to many distant lands throughout his life and gained many experiences a lot, due to which he made so many contributions for which he is still remembered and acknowledged. Inspite of facing many hardships, he worked with full dedication and made his name among the popular scientists of history. He died a bachelor in Damascus in 339 A.H. /950 A.D. at the age of 80 years.

Who is Adalbert Czerny: Biography

There are many different branches of medicine, and pediatrics is one of them. Adalbert Czerny made his name in science by also being known as one of the co-founders of modern pediatrics. Because of his devotions and contributions to pediatrics, several children’s diseases have even been named after him to commemorate his efforts in this branch of medicine.

Early Life and Educational Background

Adalbert Czerny was born on March 25, 1863 in Jaworzno, Poland but he grew up in Vienna. He was the son of a railway engineer and in 1879, the moved to Pilsen.
He already had an inclination for medicine, and when he passed his Abitur exam in 1882, he then decided to pursue medical studies at the Charles University which was in Prague. Six years later, he was able to graduate with his doctoral degree. He completed his doctoral studies by having a thesis which focused on kidney disease. To gain experience, Czerny worked as the clinical assistant of Alois Epstein who was working at the “Findelanstalt” or the hospital for foundlings. This was a part of the Prague University Hospital.
In 1893, he had a lecture about the nutrition of newborns as well as the treatise on glycogen and amaloid disorder. Because of these works of his, he was given two offers to become the chair of pediatrics in Breslau and Innsbruck. He decided to go for Breslau and it was there where he worked until the year 19While he was working in Breslau, an offer from Munich came, giving him the chance to be the full professor of pediatrics. Czerny declined this offer and because of his loyalty, he was given the position of being a personal full professor at Breslau, and it also came with a good raise in his salary.
In 1910, he had a career change which made him leave Breslau. He was offered the position of the being the chair of pediatrics in Strassburg’s new Children’s Hospital. It was there where he worked for three years. In 1913, he became Otto Heubner’s successor as the full professor for pediatrics. This was at the Berlin Charite. He worked at the Berlin Charite for 19 years and there he had much of his achievements. He even was given the chance to start the international School of Pediatrics.
During 1934-1936, he was the professor emeritus and the chair of pediatrics in Dusseldorf’s Medical Academy, and he was also the temporary head of their local Children’s Hospital. His years were spent in the field of pediatrics from the moment he finished his education.

Career Achievements

Czerny founded his own school, and it was primarily concerned with the metabolic pathology, nutrition physiology of neonates. While he was working the Children’s Hospital in Berlin University, he continued his research concerning infant mortality. It was something which Otto Heubner had started and Czerny built on the foundations which have been established.
He had his extensive work done in Breslau and along with his colleague and pupil named Arthur Keller, he was able to summarize the results he had from his Breslau work in the two-volume “Des Kindes Ernährung, Ernährungsstörungen und Ernährungstherapie”manual which translates to Children’s nutrition, nutritional disturbance and therapeutic nutrition. Because of the long name, it is most commonly referred to by the experts as simply “Czerny-Keller.” The initial edition was published in 1906, and other editions of this work was published later on in 1917 and 1928.
The “Czerny-Keller” manual basically determined facts about nutrition in the field of pediatrics and because of its significant findings, it has influenced the disciplines of pediatrics which are still being used today. Czerny used the phrase “disorder of nutrition” and this showed how nutrition as well as disease are related to each other and how they affect infant health.
He also distinguished three different groups of damages which are caused by nutrition, caused by infections, and those caused by physical constitutions. Another emphasis on his work was how nutritional disturbance affects the child’s behavior. He also had the “Der Arzt als Erzieher” or “The physician as an educator” which shows this kind of approach on the title itself.
Because of his contributions, Czerny has his own award which is annualy given by the German Association of Children’s and Juvenile Medicine or the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin. This award began in 1963, and is given yearly to deserving individuals who have had their own contributions or exemplary scientific achievements where pediatrics is concerned. The German Association of Children’s and Juvenile Medicine was founded in 1883, and they began the Adalbert-Czerny award in 1963 which is also the 100th anniversary which commemorates Czerny’s birth

Personal Life, Later Years, and Legacy

Czerny had his family and he has one son named Marianus. His son happened to be one of the full professors in Frankfurt for experimental physics—he taught from 1938 to 19He died in Berlin on the third of October, 1941 and was laid to rest in Pilsen.
He had been the discoverer of different scientific bases in pediatrics, and because of this, some children’s diseases are named after him. The most common ones are nutritional anemia observed in neonates which is called Czerny anemia, paradoxical respiration or what is known as Czerny respiration, and lymphatic-exudative diathesis which is also known as Czerny diathesis. Czerny diathesis happens to be a kind of clinical entity and Czerny himself distinguished this from scrofula and later on from tuberculosis as well. This was what Czery described as the individual disposition to the increased sensitivity of the skin as well as mucus. These were all named after Czerny to remember the contributions he helped make in defining the clinical symptoms of these specific pediatric conditions.
Just recently, Adalbert Czerny’s 105th birthday was remembered by one of the Google Doodles. It was the Google Doodle for March 25, 2013, and it featured a boy sitting on a high chair while Czerny who was in a standing position examined the young patient using a stethoscope.

Who is Agnes Robertson Arber: Biography

Agnes Robertson Arber was a British plant anatomist and morphologist, a Biology philosopher, and a Botany historian. Though born in London, the 51 years of her life was spent in Cambridge. Anger Arber was recognized to be the first woman botanist and the third overall to have been elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society at the age of Because of her contributions to botanical science, Arber received the Gold Medal of the Linnean Society of London by the age of 69 – the first woman to receive such accolade.In terms of her scientific research, it was focused on the monocotyledon class of flowering plants. During the beginning of the 20th century, she contributed to the development of morphological research and studies in Botany. The later part of her life and works was concentrated on the Botany philosophy topic, specifically on the nature of biological research.

Personal Life and Education

On February 23, 1879, Agnes Arber was born in London. She had three other siblings (who also made big names for themselves), but is the first child of her parents, Henry Robertson and Agnes Lucy Turner. Her father, being an artist, was her first art instructor during her childhood, which she later took advantage from to exemplify her own scientific publications.
Arber began attending school by the age of eight at Northern London Collegiate School founded and run by one of the principal proponents for girls’ learning and education, Frances Buss. Her fascination with Botany developed under the supervision of Miss Edith Aitken Arber, her science teacher. This fascination has led her to publish her first research piece in 1894 on their school magazine. During her schools’ botany exams, she notched the top and won a scholarship. It was during this time that Arber got to meet Ethel Sargent, a plant morphologist who regularly gave presentations to the science club in their school. Sargent had caused a deep influence on Arber on research methods and interests when she became her mentor and colleague at the same time.
In 1909, Arber moved back to Cambridge after she married Edward Alexander Newall Arber, a paleobotanist. They were blessed with their only child who was born in 1913, Muriel Agnes Arber. Since both of them shared almost the same interests, the marriage was considered happy until 1918 when Newall Arber died after a period of ill health. Agnes Arber never got married again; instead, she drowned most of her time on her researches. At the back of her house was a small laboratory, which she used to work on until in 1940 that she shifted to philosophical study. She died at the age of 81 on March 22, 1960.

Early Career

Before Arber attended the University College in London, she spent the summer of 1897 collaborating with Ethel Sargent in her private laboratory. It was Sargent who gave her microtechniques used in preparing plant specimens during microscopic exams. While studying, Arber would return to work at least once at Sargent’s laboratory. Between the years 1902 and 1903, Arber became Sargent’s research assistant focusing work on seedling structures and it was during 1903 that she was able to publish her first paper about the anatomy of Macrozamia heteromera. While in the University, Arber also conducted studies on the gymnosperm class of plants, which made her produced various papers on their anatomy and morphology. The study and philosophy the morphology of plant had then become the core focus of her later work.
In the year 1909, Arber was able to earn a space through Newnham College in Balfour Laboratory for Women. Until the laboratory’s closure in 1927, she spent her life in that laboratory continuing her studies and making new ones.

Contributions to Science

Arber studied the connection between the emergence and the development of Botany following the natural history with plants’ evolution in terms of their descriptions, identifications, and classifications. It was then that she was able to publish her first book entitled “Herbals, their origin and evolution” just after she received the Research Fellowship award given by Newnham College in 1912.
With a lot of different researches and studies she had started and continued, Arber found a core topic to focus her research into – the morphology and anatomy of the monocot type and group of plants, which was inspired by her colleague and mentor Ethel Sargent. It was then in 1920 that she became an author of two books and other 94 various publications. Arber also made a comparative research on aquatic plants through exploring their morphologic differences. This led her to publish her second book in 1920 – Water Plants: A Study of Aquatic Angiosperms.
Five years later after she published her second book, she worked so hard to publish her third book called The Monocotyledons. It was a continuous study on the morphological methods of the analysis she presented in her book Water Plants.
After Balfour Laboratory’s closure and after she was neglected by the space she used to have at her School, Arber’s research and studies did not stop her to build her own small laboratory at her house’s back room. There, she applied the lessons she learned on private research from her previous mentors.
After the publication of her third book, Arber concentrated her research to the Gramineae group of plants, especially bamboo, grasses, and cereals. This focus has resulted to the publication of her last book that concerned about plant morphology, The Gramineae. The book featured the life cycles, reproductive and embryologic, and vegetative cycles of bamboo, grasses, and cereals with the use of comparative anatomical scrutiny and exploration of these plants.
In January 1942, Arber was able to publish her final paper concerning original botanical research. Her entire succeeding publications were then about philosophical and historical topics when she found it difficult to maintain her small laboratory during the World War II. Despite stopping from laboratory works, she published more and more papers on her philosophical studies and worked with different people as influences until she published her final book in 1957, The Manifold and the One that concerned her wider views and philosophical questions about the “Unity” of all things.

Who is Ahmed Hassan Zewai: Biography

Ahmed Hassan Zewail is an Egyptian scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999 – the first of his race to win such accolade in the field of Science. He is known to be the Father of femtochemistry because of his marvelous works in the area of Physical Chemistry. Zewail is a Physics professor, the Linus Pauling Chair Professor in Chemistry and the Physical Biology Centre director for the UST or the Ultrafast Science and Technology at the prestigious school of California Institute of Technology. Ahmed Zewail is a true living legacy of Science, technology, and innovation that he made his tools into helping Egypt progress as a society in any generation.

Personal Life and Education

Ahmed Zewail came to life in Damanhour, Egypt on the 26th of February, 19He was raised in Alexandria by his parents, his father being a mechanic who assembled motorcycles and bicycles and later won a spot in the government local service. His parents were happily married for 50 years, until Hassan, his father died on the 22nd of October, 1992.
Zewail spent educating himself at the University of Alexandria by getting his Bachelor’s and Master’s degree before moving to the United Sates to finish his Doctorate (PhD) degree under his mentor, Robin Hochstrasser at the University of Pennsylvania. He did not move from Egypt to the United States alone because he had with him his wife whom he met while studying at the University of Alexandria. Ahmed then completed his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania and they had their first born child. Together with his advisor, Charles B. Harris at the University of California, Berkeley, Zewail was able to complete a post-doctoral fellowship.

Early Career

After Zewail had some post doctorate activities and works at the University of California, Berkeley, he was granted a position as a faculty at Caltech in the year 1976, where he devoted his time and effort, since, and by the year 1990, he was chosen and awarded the first ever Linus Pauling Chair Professor in Chemical Physics. It was in 1982 that Ahmed Zewail was vested and became a naturalized resident of the United States.

Contributions to Science

Ahmed Zewail’s main work has been a pioneer and a leader on femtochemistry – an area of physical chemistry that studies the chemical reactions happening in just a matter of femtoseconds. With the use of a rapid technique of ultrafast laser (which consists of ultrashort laser flashes), it allows the chemical reactions’ descriptions on a very short span of time – too short to analyze the transition states in several chemical reactions.
His work was based and initially turned out into something with the question, how rapid did the energy inside a large molecule such as the naphthalene, restructure among the entire atomic motions? They had to create an apparatus containing a vacuum chamber for those molecules exuding from the collimated beam source at a supersonic speed. The real challenge would boil down to building an ultrafast laser to be utilized alongside the molecular beam.
The team desired to witness the different processes from birth to death of every molecule. In this particular experiment, the anthracene molecule was isolated. It was through this experiment that Zewail and his team identified the specific movements of molecules and the importance of coherence in each phase of the molecular system. It was proven that the movement of each molecule is coherent, because if not, it would not have been observed in the first place.
The outcome of Zewail team’s experiment showed the importance of consistency and its existence in multifaceted molecular systems. The result of consistency and coherence was important through the movement of the molecules. Even before, molecular coherence had never been observed not because of the deficiency in coherence, but due to the deficiency in proper probes. In the experiments on anthracene, energy and time resolutions were initiated and correlated.
While Zewail was continuing his studies on the redistributions of vibrational energy, he began new studies and works on more brief time resolutions for molecules showcasing diverse rational motions and chemical processes.
It was in the year 1999 that Zewail received a Nobel Prize – on which he became third to have won as an Egyptian national but first in the field of Science. He received many different awards and recognitions from his works and experiments. His accolades were awarded by renowned bodies of institutions and he even ended up receiving the Grand Collar of the Nile, which is Egypt’s highest honor.
Zewail’s dedication to Science has led to political work. Like his father, he entered working for the government. He used Science as his driving force and platform to saving Egypt and saving the world. During the 4th of July, 2009 speech held at Cairo University, the president of the United States Barack Obama announced to the public the new program on Science Envoy as part of the fresh start between the people from the United States and the Muslims all over the world. And on January the following year, Bruce Alberts, Elias Zerhouni, and Ahmed Zewail became the first ever Science emissaries to Islam. They were tasked to visit countries with Muslims as the majority population beginning from the corners of North Africa to the boundaries of Southeast Asia.
Because of his accolades and great achievements in Science and even in political aspects, he was rumored to run for the presidential election of Egypt in 2011 but he justified himself by telling everybody that he had no political agenda or ambitions. All he wanted was to serve Egypt using Science as his armor and frankly voiced out that he strongly chose to die as a scientist and nothing else.
And then the highlight of his undying academic career came – Ahmed Zewail has been nominated and will partake in the PCAST or the Presidential Council of Advisors in Science and Technology presented and created by President Barack Obama. This is an advisory group of the country’s pioneer and leading engineers and scientists to make relatively significant pieces of advice for the President and Vice President and put together guidelines in the areas of Science, technology, and invention or innovation.

Who is Al-Battani: Biography

Al-Battani is sometimes known by a Latinized version of his name, being Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius. His full name was Abu Abdallah Mohammad ibn Jabir ibn Sinan al-Raqqi al-Harrani al-Sabi al-Battani.
Al-Battani’s father was Jabir ibn Sinan al-Harrani who had a high reputation as an instrument maker in Harran. The name makes the identification certain that al-Battani himself was skilled in making astronomical instruments and there is a good indication that he learnt these skills from his father.

Early Life and Career:

Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Ibn Sinan al-Battani al-Harrani was born around 858 C.E. in Harran. Battani was first educated by his father Jabir Ibn San’an al-Battani, who also was a well-known scientist. He then moved to Raqqa, situated on the bank of the Euphrates, where he received advanced education and later on flourished as a scholar. At the beginning of the 9th century, he migrated to Samarra, where he worked till the end of his life. His family had been members of the Sabian sect, a religious sect of star worshippers from Harran. Being worshipers of the stars meant that the Sabians had a strong motivation for the study of astronomy. Al-Battani, unlike Thabit, another mathematician from his home town, was not a believer in the Sabian religion. His name “Abu Abdallah Mohammad” indicates that he was certainly a Muslim.
Al-Battani made remarkably accurate astronomical observations at Antioch and ar-Raqqah in Syria. The town of ar-Raqqah, where most of al-Battani’s observations were made, became prosperous when Caliph Harun al-Rashid built several palaces there.
The Fihrist describes al-Battani as one of the most famous observers and a leader in geometry, theoretical and practical astronomy, and astrology. He composed work on astronomy, with tables, containing his own observations of the sun and moon and a more accurate description of their motions than that given in Ptolemy’s “Almagest”.
The main achievements of al-Battani’s are:
• He cataloged 489 stars.
• He refined the existing values for the length of the year, which he gave as 365 days 5 hours 46 minutes 24 seconds, and of the seasons.
• He calculated 54.5″ per year for the precession of the equinoxes and obtained the value of 23° 35′ for the inclination of the ecliptic.
Rather than using geometrical methods, as other scientists had done, al-Battani used trigonometric methods which were an important advancement. Al-Battani showed that the farthest distance of the Sun from the Earth varies and, as a result, annular eclipses of the Sun are possible as well as total eclipses. Al-Battani is important in the development of science for a number of reasons, but one of these must be the large influence his work had on scientists such as Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo and Copernicus.


Historians all agree that Al-Battani passed away in 317 H. /929 A.D., near the city of Moussul in Iraq. He was regarded as one of the most famous Arab astronomers. He dedicated all his life until his death to the observation of planets and stars.

Who is Alan Turing: Biography

Alan Turing was a man before his time. This brilliant English code-breaker helped turn the tide of World War II, and was arguably one of the fathers of the entire field of computer science. He was a Renaissance man who studied and made contributions to the philosophical study of the nature of intelligence, to biology and to physics. His biography reveals that he was also the victim of anti-homosexual attitudes and laws, losing his security clearance and resorting to suicide two years later.
Born right before the start of WW I, and parked in England by his Indian civil service parents,Turing studied quantum mechanics, a very new field, probability, and logic theory at King’s College, Cambridge, and was elected a Fellow. His paper-based theoretical model for the Turing Machine, an automatic computational design, proof of the theorem that automatic computation cannot solve all mathematical problems is called the Turing Machine, and contributed significantly to computational theory. He continued his studies at Princeton in algebra and number theory.
In the years leading up to open hostilities in World War II, he was secretly working in government crypto-analysis. When England entered the war, he took on the full-time task of deconstructing the operation of the German Enigma machine. This cipher generator of immense complexityallowed the Germans to create apparentlyunbreakable codes. Turing embraced this cryptographychallenge, creating a decryption machine specifically aimed at Enigma, named the Bombe. Enigma’s unraveling was a several year process that achieved success in 19Information gleaned from decoded German messages permitted the Allies to anticipate U-Boat deployment, thereby winning the battle of the Atlantic.
In cooperative US/UK cryptographic efforts in the latter years of the war, Turing was lead consultant. At war’s end, he joined the National Physical Laboratory to try to invent a digital computer, or thinking machine.To that end, he studied neural nets and tried to define artificial intelligence. Disappointed by the reception his ideas received at the NPL, he moved to Manchester University, in England’s gritty industrial region. His department unveiled the first practical mathematical computer in 1949.
One triumph followed another. In 1950, hedeveloped Turing Test for machine intelligence assessment: In brief, if an observer cannot tell whether they are interacting with human or machine, the machine is intelligent.
As always a polymath, he also did work on non-linear growth in biological systems, and physics, that promised to bear fruit.
However, a bio of Alan Turing is not complete without addressing the facts of his personal life. According to 1952 legal charges, he became involved with what was termed ‘a bit of rough trade’. In other words, he had a short term sexual liaison with a laborer who was down on his luck financially. The scandal of this British national intellectual treasure, a Fellow of the Royal Society, innovator in a whole new discipline of study, and the savior of the navy, being revealed as a homosexual, was immense. The humiliating trial ruined his career and his life. He was stripped of his security clearance, because at that time it was believed that a homosexual was vulnerable to blackmailand enemy (read Communist) subversion.
This punishment effectively cut off from the work that he had pioneered. He poisoned himself in 1954, leaving behind much intriguing unfinished work in physics and biology.

Who is Albert Abraham Michelson: Biography

The nineteenth century physicist, Albert Abraham Michelson, was the first American to be awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics. He became famous for his establishment of the speed of light as a fundamental constant and other spectroscopic and meteorological investigations. He had a memorable career that included teaching and research positions at the Naval Academy, the Case School of Applied Science, Clark University, and the University of Chicago.


Born to a Jewish family on December 19, 1852 Strzelno, Provinz Posen in the Kingdom of Prussia, Michelson was brought to America when he was only two years old.
He was brought up in the rough mining towns of Murphy’s Camp, California and Virginia City, Nevada, where his father was a trader. He completed his high school education in San Francisco and later in 1869 he went to Annapolis as an appointee of President U.S. Grant.
During his four years at the Naval Academy, Michelson did extremely well in optics, heat and climatology as well as drawing. He graduated in 18Two years later, he was appointed an instructor in physics and chemistry. After resigning from the post in 1880, he spent two years studying in Universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, and the Collège de France and École Polytechnique in Paris. He developed a great interest in science and the problem of measuring the speed of light in particular.
He was then employed as a professor of physics at the Case School of Applied Science at Cleveland, Ohio. Later in 1889 he moved to Clark University as professor of physics, and after three years he was invited to head the department of physics at the new University of Chicago, a position which he held until 1931.
In 1899, he married Edna Stanton and they had one son and three daughters.


During his stay at Annapolis, he carried out his first experiments on the speed of light. With his simple device, made up essentially of two plane mirrors, one fixed and one revolving at the rate of about 130 turns per second from which light was to be reflected, Michelson was successful in obtaining a measure closer than any that had been obtained to the presently accepted figure — 186,508 miles per second.
Michelson executed his most successful experiment at Cleveland in cooperation with the chemist Edward W. Morley. Light waves were considered as ripples of the aether which occupied all space. If a light source were moving through the aether, the pace of the light would be different for each direction in which it was discharged. In the Michelson-Morley experiment two beams of light, passed out and reflected back at right angles to each other, took equal amount of time. Thus the concept of stationary ether had to be discarded.
Michelson is also known for the measurement of the diameter of super-giant star, Betelgeuse, using astronomical interferometer with his colleague Francis G. Pease.
In 1907, Michelson was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics “for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”. During the same year he also won the Copley Medal, the Henry Draper Medal in 1916, and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 19Moreover, a crater on the Moon is also named after him.


Michelson died on May 9, 1931, while he was working on a more refined measurement of the velocity of light in Pasadena, California.

Who is Alberto Santos-Dumont: Biography

One of the most prominent names when it comes to aviation, Alberto Santos-Dumont was a well-known Brazilian aviator. He captured the attention of Americans and Europeans with his airship flights. Alberto was the first to have achieved flight of a powered airplane and this was with the No. 14-bis in Europe.

Early Life

Born on the 20th of July in 1873, Alberto was the heir of a rich family who produced coffee. His birthplace was in the village of Cabangu in the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Today, this farm still exists and is called the Santos-Dumont farm. He was the 6th out of eight children, and while he was still young, he was already taught how to drive the locomotive and steam tractors which were used in the family plantation in Sao Paulo. He had always been fascinated by machinery and in the autobiography he wrote, he had mentioned how he had dreamt of flying.
His father was a French-born engineer and made use of the best possible labor-saving machines and inventions on his property. Because of this, Alberto’s father amassed a huge fortune and was also sometimes called the “coffee king of Brazil.” Alberto initially received education from private teachers as well as his parents which was what was normal for wealthy families back then. For a time, he studied at the “Colégio Culto à Ciência” which was in Campinas.
Alberto’s father endured being a paraplegic after falling from his horse in 19When Alberto turned 18, his father decided to send him to Paris while the rest of the family moved to Europe after the father’s accident. This was where he had the exposure to physics, chemistry, mechanics, electricity, and astronomy. Shortly after their arrival, Alberto bought his own automobile—indicative of his love for transportation and machines.

Experiments and Inventions

Alberto described himself as the very first “sportsman of the air.” The very first flying experience he had was with an experienced balloon pilot whom he had hired to learn from their experience. Not long after, he began piloting balloons by himself and even went as far as designing his very own balloons. He flew his very first balloon called “Bresil” which had the capacity of 113 cubic meters and was able to lift a ballast which weighed 114.4 lbs. This first flight took place on the fourth of July in 1898.
After a number of balloon flights, Alberto decided to design steerable balloons, which were called dirigibles. Instead of just drifting where the wind took it, dirigibles can be propelled to which direction the pilot wished to take it. A previous experiment about dirigibles had already been successfully flown back in 1884 by Arthur Krebs and Charles Renard, but they lacked funding to continue with the exercise.
From the years 1898 up to 1905, Alberto was able to build and fly a total of 11 dirigibles. Since air traffic control still wasn’t an issue back then, he was known to float at rooftop levels around Paris and would even land near an outdoor café where he fancied having lunch.

Competition and Other Dirigibles

Alberto decided to build a bigger dirigible in order to win the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize and this was what led to the development of dirigible No. On one of his attempts, particularly on the 8th of August 1901, his dirigible unfortunately lost gas and began to descend without being able to clear the area—it therefore hit the Trocadero Hotel roof and a loud explosion was heard in the surrounding area. Alberto survived this explosion and was helped to safety by the Paris fire brigade.
Despite this far from satisfactory attempt at winning the prize, he was still able to snag the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize on October 19 of the same year with dirigible No. The prize was awarded for the first flight which took off from Parc Saint Cloud and then circumnavigated after reaching the Eiffel Tower within just 30 minutes.
There had even been a controversy surrounding the flight, right after he was able to complete it. It was about a certain last minute rule about the precise timing of the dirigible’s flight. After several days of validation and discussion by the committee for the prize, Alberto was still awarded the prize and the prize money which totaled 125,000 francs. He donated 75,000 francs to the poor people in Paris.
Because of his feats in aviation, Alberto became known all over the world and was associated with the rich and the elite. He won several other prizes for his airships and was even invited by none other than then U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt himself to the White House. His fame even made him some sort of celebrity, and Parisians called him “le petit Santos” in an affectionate manner. Even his fashion statement was mimicked by people—including the signature Panama hat he wore. He is still considered as one of the most prominent “folk heroes” in Brazil today.

Heavier Aircrafts

After his evident success in lighter airships, he then focused his attention to giving flight to heavier vehicles and come 1905, he was able to finish his first design for a fixed-wing aircraft along with another design for a helicopter. It was on the 23rd of October in 1906 when he was first able to realize his dream of flying a heavier aircraft called the 14-bis. He flew it in front of an audience and the flight had a distance of 60 meters while being 15 feet high in the air.
This was a very well-documented event and it was also the first flight to have been verified by the Aéro-Club de France. Another record set by Alberto was being able to fly a distance of 220 meters in just 21.5 seconds, and this was credited by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale.
He created several other aircrafts, and along with those inventions, he popularized the newly invented wristwatch since he needed to measure the flight time intervals. He popularized its use by men back in the 20th century, and Cartier came up with the brilliant solution of having a leather-strapped wristwatch which would allow Alberto to check the time while keeping both hands on the plane controls. Since then, Alberto never took flight without his Cartier watch.
There were mysteries surrounding his death – there were several angles which included suicide and murder. He was buried in Rio De Janeiro and his own house in Petrópolis, Brazil is currently a museum.

Who is Albrecht von Haller: Biography

One of the greatest and most influental biologists of the 18th century, Swiss scientst Albrecht von Haller is often credited as the “father of experimental physiology”. His contributions ranged across anatomy, physiology, embryology, botany and poetry.

Early Life and Career:

Born in Bern, Switzerland, in 1708, Albrecht von Haller, as a child prodigy, wrote several metrical translations from Ovid, Horace and Virgil when he was hardly fifteen. He studied the form and function of one organ after the other, launching anatomy as an experimental science, and also enforcing dynamic rules to the study of physiology.
Haller analyzed the irritability of muscle and the sensibility of nerves, studying circulation time and the automatic action of the heart. He gave the first to give detailed explanation of respiration.
His publicaton “Elementa Physialogiae Carports Hamani” (Elements of Physiology, 1757-66) proved to be one of the influential works on the subject. Haller consistently broadened the field of anatomy, relating it to physiology by experimentation, and implemented dynamic rules to complex physiological problems.
The approach of Albrecht von Haller was precise, analytical and objective. He was the first person to discover that only nerves produce sensation and only those parts of the body connected to the nervous system can undergo a sensation. Probably his most notable contribution was the formulation of the method of physiological research.

Later Life and Death:

Albrecht von Haller’s health began substantially declining after 17He died on December 12, 17He was 69 years old.

Who is Aldo Leopold: Biography

In a world where life perishes and modernization gets in the way of natural habitats of different species, wildlife conservation is a key factor in keeping Nature’s gift of life in balance. Aldo Leopold is considered by some as the father of wildlife conservation. He happened to be one of the leaders of what is now known as the American wilderness movement and throughout his life, he had played many roles ranging from being a wildlife manager, naturalist, hunter, poet, visionary, and philosopher to name a few. He is credited for the development of the first national wilderness area in the country back in 1924.

Early Life and Personal Background

A native of Burlington, Iowa, Rand Aldo Leopold was born on January 11, 18He was the son of a top manufacturer of fine walnut desks named Carl Leopold, and had been the grandson of a landscape architect who had received education in Germany. He had a comfortable life, and he grew up living in a mansion situated atop a limestone buff which overlooked the Mississippi River. Down this mansion and across the railroad tracks lay a big river, and this river served as a pathway for migrating geese and ducks. For a young boy, this was like a wildlife wonderland waiting to be discovered.
According to his brother named Frederic, Aldo didn’t talk much but was a bright student. He also had a love for reading especially about wood lore. He also knew a great deal about what the animals ate, what chases animals, and which animals ate which other animals. His love for the great outdoors is said to have been something he got from their father.
During early mornings in the fall, he and his father would explore the marsh and wait for the ducks. During the off-season, marsh exploration was still something they did, and during these times, Aldo learned from his father that it was not right to hunt during nesting season—this was a realization instilled upon him long before there were federal laws established about prohibiting hunting during this season.


Gifford Pinchot who was a forester and politician donated money to the Yale University to start one of the country’s first forestry schools. After Aldo heard of this development, he decided to take forestry as his vocation. Before being accepted at Yale, he attended the Lawrenceville School which was a preparatory college situated in New Jersey.
Aldo attended the Burlington High School and his principal there wrote a letter referring Aldo to the Lawrenceville School. It was in January 1904 when he arrived in Lawrenceville School, shortly before turning seventeen. He showed his love for the great outdoors despite Lawrenceville’s mostly rural setup and he was frequently mapping the place while he made notes on the wildlife he saw. He studied there for a year, and was later on accepted to Yale. Since the Yale Forest School only gave graduate degrees, he first had to enroll for the preparatory forest courses in Sheffield Scientific School.
He graduated from Yale with his Master’s Degree in Forestry in June 19Afterwards, he joined the United States Forest Service where he was then assigned to the New Mexico and Arizona areas.


Initially, he was one of the forest assistants at the Apache National Forest which is in the Arizona territory. In 1911, Aldo was transferred to northern New Mexico, specifically to the Carson National Forest. This phase of his career kept him in the same location until 1924 and it included developing the very first management plan for the Grand Canyon. He also wrote the Forest Service’s very first fish and game handbook. That time was also when he proposed the Gila Wilderness Area which is the country’s first national wilderness area recorded in the Forest Service system. This proposal was submitted in 1922, and completion of the handbook was in 1923.
He had a fruitful career related to forestry, and in 1924 he was transferred to the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory located in Madison, Wisconsin. There he became an associate director. Nine years later he became the Professor of Game Management in the Agricultural Economics Department which is known as the first professorship for wildlife management. In 1935, he assisted the founding of the Wilderness Society and in the same year he was able to acquire “The Shack” which was the setting for most of his sketches. In autumn of that same year he studied forestry and wildlife management in Germany since he had a Carl Schurz fellowship.
A few years later in 1939, he became the chairman of the new Department of Wildlife Management which was at the University of Wisconsin. In 1943, he had been appointed by a governor to have a 6-year term in the Wisconsin Conservation Commission which was largely focused on deer policy. A year before his death in 1948, he was still able to submit the revised manuscript titled “Great Possessions” and it was accepted in1948.

Personal Life and Death

Aldo lived with his wife and children in a two-storey home which was near the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His children also became naturalists and teachers. Today, the home of the Leopolds which was occupied by Aldo and his family stands as one of the landmarks of Madison. They purchased this 80-acre area in 1935 and this worn out farm was where Aldo practiced some of his knowledge in building a disrupted landscape. The place was also known as the sand counties, and “The Shack” was an old chicken coop that served as their family laboratory which was also open to friends and other graduate students.
He was able to publish over 300 articles about the wilderness in his lifetime. In 1948, soon after his last work called the “A Sand County Almanac,” he was struck by heart attack and died on April During the incident, he had been fighting a grassfire on one of his neighbor’s farms. He was later on buried in Burlington, Iowa, his hometown.

Who is Alexander Bain: Biography

There are many names that are worth taking note of in the world of philosophy and one name that deserves to be known is Alexander Bain—a Scottish educationalist and philosopher. He is also known as one of the most innovative and prominent minds in different fields that include logic, education reform, psychology, linguistics and moral philosophy. Alexander Bain was also the founder of Mind and this is worth taking note of since it was the very first journal of its kind to focus on psychology as well as analytical philosophy. He was also the man responsible for the application of the scientific method to the study of psychology. At the University of Aberdeen, Alexander Bain also held the inaugural Regius Chair position in Logic. He was also a professor in English Literature and Moral Philosophy. There were a couple of times where he was elected as the Lord Rector at the School.

His Early Life

It was in Aberdeen, Scotland where Alexander Bain was born to Margaret Paul and George Bain on June 11, 18George, his father, was a veteran soldier and a weaver. In fact, Alexander Bain left school at 11; he got a weaver job and this is why in the rex philosophorum, he was described as a “Weevir.” Alexander Bain also attended lectures held in the Aberdeen Public Library and the Mechanic’s Institute of Aberdeen. In 1839, he enrolled in Marischal College and met Professor John Cruickshank, a professor of mathematics who was of great influence to Alexander Bain. He also met Thomas Clark, a professor of chemistry, and William Knight who taught Natural Philosophy.
Nearing the completion of his degree as an undergraduate, he associated with the Westminster Review as a contributor and this was where his article The Electrotype and the Daguerrotype was published. At around the same time, his connection to John Stuart Mill was founded and developed into a friendship that lasted a lifetime. During his college studies and career, he stood out for his prowess in mental philosophy, physics and mathematics. He was so good that he even graduated with the highest honors.
Alexander Bain substituted for the regular professor in 1841 and taught Moral Philosophy. The professor then was ill and unable to continue with his academic work. Bain was on the job for three terms while continuing with his article contributions to the Westminster while helping John Stuart Mill make revisions on his Systems of Logic manuscript (1842).

His Academic Career

The year 1845 was a big year for Alexander Bain since he was given the job as a Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics at the University of Glasgow. In 1846, he quit the position and made more time for writing since he preferred a wider field. Two years later, he decided to make the move to London and took under Sir Chadwick at the Board of Health. His work was focused on becoming a noted affiliate of the intellectual circle along with John Stuart Mill and George Grote. He also devoted a lot of his time and work to social reform.
Several years after when he was 37 years old, he had the chance to publish a major work of his which was The Senses and Intellect. In 1859, he followed it up with another major work that was entitled The Emotions and the Will. Alexander Bain was a very busy man. At the University of London he worked as an examiner in Moral Philosophy and Logic from 1857-61 and 1864-It was also there that he became an instructor for Indian Civil Services and Moral Science Examinations.
He later moved to a new position at the University of Aberdeen which as new at the time. It was still newly formed since it was the time that the Scottish Universities Commission amalgamated two universities—Marischal College and King’s College, Aberdeen.
Alexander Bain was a man ahead of his time and it was one of his greatest triumphs that he got people to pay more attention to the study of linguistics. In 1959, the subjects of English and logic were not really a focus in Aberdeen so he put a lot of his time and effort into rectifying any deficiencies. He not only raised the educational standards in North Scotland in the University of Abderdeen, but he also worked to establish the School of Philosophy. His work at Aberdeen also influenced the way grammar and composition was taught in the entire United Kingdom.
His philosophical works were also used in the classroom but they came in condensed versions since his original works were much too long and bulky to be used in the classroom. In fact, in 1870 he published a work entitled Logic which was written specifically to be used in classrooms. The book was loosely based on some works by John Stuart Mill.

Social Reform

Bain had a special interest in development and social justice. In fact, he actively took part in social and political movements in his time. After he retired from the Chair of Logic post, he was twice elected as the Lord Rector at the University of Aberdeen. He worked hard to advocate reform especially when it came to how sciences were taught. He also supported the trust to include modern languages in the school curriculum. He was also known to be a strong supporter of student’s rights.
After Alexander Bain gave up his post as a professor and Chair at the University of Aberdeen, he was succeeded by one of his most brilliant students, William Minto. However, retirement did not stop him from working on the subjects and issues which he was passionate for. He still worked on papers on books about teaching English and rhetoric.
The last years of his life were spent in Aberdeen and in private. He was married twice but never had any children. Alexander Bain died on September 18, 1903 and his last request was that no stone should be put on his grave and his books were to serve as his monuments.

Who is Alexander Brongniart: Biography

Alexander Brongniart was a French zoologist, mineralogist, and chemist who had worked hand in hand with Georges Cuvier concerning geology around Paris. He was also the Sevres porcelain factory director and had been responsible for the worldwide fame of the factory. He had been the professor at the Museum of Natural History in Paris teaching mineralogy, and he had established the basic principles of ceramic chemistry. Along with these accomplishments, he had also made contributions to science by introducing a new classification of reptiles, extensively studying trilobites, and contributed to stratigraphy through developing markers which can be used for dating strata.
Personal Life and Education
Born in Paris, France on the 5th of February back in 1770, Alexandre Brongniart was the son of Anne-Louise Degremont and Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart who was a distinguished architect in Paris. He studied for a time at the École des Mines before moving to the École de Médecine. There was a time when he became the assistant to Antoine-Louis Brongniart who was, at that time, a professor at Jardin des Plantes teaching chemistry. This had been one of his earliest exposures to the field of chemistry and may have been the spark for his interest in this field.
While he was the director of the porcelain factory which to this day remains his legacy, he was able to marry Cecile who was the daughter of Charles-Étienne Coquebert de Montbret, a statesman and a scientist. They had just one son, who became the paleobotanist and botanist named Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart who had gained his own name in the field of science.
Early Career
Alexandre Brongiart gained even more exposure to chemistry when he served as the aide-pharmacien for the French forces which were in the Pyrenees. In 1794 though, he returned to Paris and had been appointed as the ingénieur des mines. Three years later, he then became a professor at the École Centrale des Quatre-Nations, teaching natural history. He was appointed as ingénieur en chef des minesin 1818, and come 1822, he then succeeded the professor of mineralogy, R. J. Haüy at the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle. In 1815, Alexandre Brongiart was elected as one of the members of the Académie des Sciences.
Most of Alexandre Brongniart’s life was spent in his hometown where he conducted various researches and where he had lived an academic life being a professor and part of the administrations of the universities he was in. He had been known to help his students and had even had gatherings for scientists at his own evening salons.
After the time of the Revolution, he had visited England in order to learn the ceramics techniques. He had been able to travel Western Europe and even published his own geological papers about areas such as Italy and Sweden. It was in 1800 when he became appointed as the director of the Sèvres porcelain factory, and this was the post he had held until his death in October 7, 1847.
Contributions to Science
While he had left his legacy as the director of the porcelain factory and having made contributions to the chemistry of ceramics in particular, his first publications weren’t all about the ceramic industry. It is a given that this industry had been a big part of his life, but he also had other interests. His first papers had been on mineralogy as well as zoology.
In the field of zoology, he had his work called “Essai d’une classification naturelle des reptiles” published in 18This paper had emphasized how important comparative anatomy was. Because of this basis, he had been able to further split the class Reptilia, into four more groups.
From his studies on reptiles, he noticed how one of the groups– the batrachians were much different compared to the other three groups. The distinction had been noticeable especially in their reproductive organs which had been a lot more important compared to the much more observable difference of limbless snakes and the others. Because of this finding, Pierre Latreille had moved the batrachians to their separate class—the amphibians, while the reptile grouping of Brongniart of the true reptiles namely saurian, ophidians, and chelonians, remain to this day as part of the modern systematics.
In 1807, he published Traité élémentaire de mineralogy. In this work he had classed basalt and clay despite the difficulty of fine-grained rocks from the true and simple minerals. In his studies about mineralogy, he had emphasized on how important it was to study the different modes of occurrence along with their properties. He did, however, limit his expression concerning the igneous or aqueous origins of basalt back in those days.
His studies concerning mineralogy and zoology may have seemed like two very different scientific fields, but these two met when he began his geological work which had then made him famous in the world of science. He had worked alongside Cuvier who had been working on reconstructions of the extinct animals, specifically the mammals which were in Paris. They had worked in collaboration to survey the area and together they determined the strata order of the fossils they have located. Together, they published the “Essai sur la géographie mineralogiquc des environs de Paris” in Jun 1808, and this paper had included a colored and detailed geological map. Known for his modesty, Brongniart’s name appeared after Cuvier’s, despite the fact that majority of the work in the said paper had been his.
The “Tableau des terrains qui composent l’écorce du globe” was Brongniart’s last major work and was published in 1829, and this work had featured the interpretation and ordered classification of rocks. Unlike his earlier works though, this publication received much less recognition and had minimal influence on the development of geology. Despite this, however, his stratigraphical works had given a great principal model which had served as the pattern of other more productive geological works in the years 1810-1840 in Europe. Because of his works, geology in nineteenth century Europe had been changed and his contributions are still credited even to this day.

Who is Alexander Fleming: Biography

His last name is something most animal lovers would have already heard of because of the Humboldt squid that lives in the Humboldt Current. This was named after Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. Simply called Alexander von Humboldt, he was a notable Prussian geographer, explorer, and naturalist. He is widely recognized for his works on botanical geography which is what laid the foundation for biogeography.

Early Life and Education

This naturalist and eager explorer was born on September 14, 1769, in Berlin, Germany. Alexander Georg von Humboldt, his father, had been an army officer who died in 1779 when he was only 9 years old, and he along with his brother Wilhelm were raised by their rather distant and cold mother. They belonged to a prominent Pomeranian family, and this was why they were able to afford tutors to provide them their basic education in mathematics and languages—classic subjects then.
When he was young, he already had a hobby of collecting and labeling different plants, insects, and shells. This was why he earned the moniker “little apothecary,” a playful title used to refer to young Alexander. Since he had an exposure to politics because of his father, he was set for a politically-inclined career.
Because of this he took courses in finance for a span of six months and he attended the University of Frankfurt. After a year he studied at Göttingen. During this time, his many interests had been clear to him and when he had his time off in 1789, Alexander went on an excursion on the River Rhine and was able to come up with the “Mineralogic Observations on Several Basalts on the River Rhine.”


Alexander had the opportunity to be under the wing of A.G. Werner, a famous geologist who taught at the Freiberg Academy of Mines. During his time there, Alexander met the man named George Forester who was Captain James Cook’s illustrator. Together, the tandem hiked in different places in Europe and because of his knowledge in geology as well as other fields, Alexander was able to work as a government mines inspector when he was 22 in Franconia, Prussia.
His mother died when he was 27, on the 19th of November, 1796 and this left him a good inheritance which was essential to his explorations. A year after his mother’s death, he left the government service and planned his travels with the botanist Aime Bonpland. He had always wanted to travel and explore, but had been bound to his political obligations. Together with Bonpland, he traveled to Madrid in order to obtain special permission along with passports from King Charles II for their plans on exploring South America.
It was on the 5th of June 1799 when Bonpland and von Humboldt sailed aboard the Pizarro. They had a 6-day stop at Tenerife, an island where the Teide volcano which they planned to explore was. On the 16th of July, they were on the shores of Cumana, Venezuela. During their stay in South America, Bonpland and Humboldt studied the topography, flora, and fauna of the continent. Come 1800, Humboldt had already mapped more than 1700 miles of the Orinco River.
He continued his explorations and even had a trip to the Andes along with a climb to the top of Mt. Chimborazo located in today’s modern Ecuador. Back then, this summit was believed to have been the highest peak in the world. They were not able to make it to the very top, but had ascended over 18,000 feet! While in this area, the ended the exploration by going to Lima, Peru, and this was when Humboldt was able to observe the transit of Mercury. He also studied how guano had fertilizing properties.
While he was on South America’s west coast, Alexander was able to measure and discover the Peruvian Current. This current is also referred to as the Humboldt Current. Bonpland and von Humboldt were still in South America come 1803, and this time, Alexander was offered a position to be one of the members of the Mexican cabinet.
Other notable experiences from his many explorations in South America included being able to see the Leonids on the nights of November 11 and 12 shortly after their arrival in South America, climbing the Avila Mount, and capturing some electric eels with Bonpland from which they received quite a number of electric shocks.

Other Travels and Achievements

After a great amount of exploration in South America, Bonpland and von Humboldt were successfully persuaded by a certain American counselor to pay a visit to Washington, D.C. There they stayed for three weeks and during their time there, Alexander was able to have several meetings with then president Thomas Jefferson who he became good friends with.
In 1804, Alexander travelled to Paris and then he wrote 30 volumes about his different field studies. He stayed in the area for 23 years and during his time there, had the opportunity to meet and have discussions with several other bright minds of his age.
After a time of traveling and self-publishing his reports, his fortune from the inheritance had ultimately run out. This made him find a stable source of income and he became one of the advisors of Prussia’s king. Later on, he was invited to Russia by the tsar himself and he advised them to have observatories all over the country and enlightened them on discoveries like permafrost.
For about a year from 1827, Alexander was in Berlin, giving public lectures. These lectures became so popular that there came a need for new assembly halls. As he was getting old, he decided to write everything which was then known about the earth in a work he called the Kosmos. The first volume was published in 18He was 76 then.
He suffered a minor stroke on February 24, 18Two years later, his health began to decline and at the age of 89, he died on May 6, 18Much of the man’s private life was a mystery since he destroyed most of his private letters. To this day, he is known as one of the most significant contributors to earth sciences.

Sources: Famous Scientists


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