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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Bernal Díaz del Castillo
- Biography of Max Scheler
Biography of Bernal Díaz del Castillo
(1492/04/21 - Unknown)Bernal Díaz del Castillo
Spanish conquistador and chronicler of the Indies
He was born on April 21, 1492 in Medina del Campo (Valladolid).
In 1514, and together with Pedro Arias Dávila, was launched to the New world.
Spent some time in name of Dios, Panama. Thence departed for Cuba, where ruled Diego Velázquez, which offered, similar to other Spanish, Indians in encomienda, which never was fulfilled. Last season, he joined the expedition of Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, launched in February, 15This year it began to contact the country that later would be called New Spain. In fact in that expedition he could realize the existence of cities in the Yucatan area.
Returning to Cuba, a year later, he returned to exit this time in the company of Juan de Grijalva. In 1519 he definitely entered in Mexico, when it embarked on the expedition led by Hernán Cortés. Under the direct orders of Pedro de Alvarado, a lot of the main facts of the conquest took part.
A while after captured all those episodes written. This was when I was in Guatemala, where he married in 1544 Teresa Becerra. Bernal made two trips to Spain in demand for mercedes, the second of which participated in meetings that, on the enslavement of the Indians, perpetuity of charges and taxes, held in Valladolid in 15When he returned to Guatemala, not to the President of the hearing satisfied to what was intended to be obtained in Spain, continued their struggle by those who believed to be rights inherent to their merits of conqueror.
It is believed that around 1557 he had begun to write his Chronicle about the conquest of Mexico. Elected Alderman, Bernal went to the Cabildo sessions according to show him the minutes signed by him. Reviewing his work again and again, gave it to the end finished in 15Titled the conquest of new Spain-true story, includes a vivid story of major events, from its beginning until the fall of Tenochtitlan and other happenings that she followed. It was published for the first time in Madrid in 1632 by copying the mercedarian Friar Alonso rowedcould use n. In Guatemala was another copy that was written down in various places by Francisco, one of the sons of Bernal. Later appeared other publications. Which can be taken as criticism, arranged by the Jesuit Carmelo Sáenz de Santa María, was published in 1982, Copublished by the Institute Fernández de Oviedo, the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the Landivar University in Guatemala.
It is believed that he died in Antigua Guatemala in 1584.
Biography of Max Scheler
(1874/08/22 - 1928/05/19)Max Scheler
German social and religious philosopher
Born on August 22, 1874, Munich.
He was Professor at the universities of Jena, Munich, and Cologne. Disciple of Rudolf Eucken, sympathizes with the vitalistic theories after Edmund Husserl and Henri Bergson to becoming the first phenomenologist.
It is the best theoretical values. Writer of extraordinary fertility. Scheler distinguishes three kinds of knowledge: the inductive, of the essential structure and the metaphysical. Inductive knowledge is that of positive Sciences. It is based on the instinct of domination. Its object is the reality and aims to use it by means of the technique. The Faculty cognitive, alone, is not enough that we possess the reality since this is what offers resistance to our efforts. The presence of this effort is what testifies to the existence of the real thing. The knowledge of the essential structure is knowing that allows us to grasp which of the things. This knowledge we arrived when we are abstaining from the impulsive attitude and ignore the real existence of things. Its subject is the priori. Agree with Immanuel Kant that there is knowledge of the a priori, and that this character have it ideal propositions that are independent of the subject who thinks them. In Exchange for this partial coincidence with Kant, holding five differences.
aren't judgments but the essences which are primarily the priori.
the region of the priori does not coincide with the formal region, since being the essences in the priori region, also gives the material a priori.
in the place of the question: how is it possible something?, the fundamental question, said Scheler, it is rather this one: what is what is given?
4 Scheler considered false the Kantian theory according to which everything is is link had to be produced by the understanding. Scheler says that it is not the understanding that prescribes laws to nature. The only thing that we can establish are conventions but not laws.
nor is it agreed that the a priori will match the rational. all of our spiritual life (love, feeling, etc) has content priori. According to Pascal, said Scheler that "there is an order of the heart a priori, a logic of the heart".
Know metaphysical, also called Salvation know, appears when lock results of positive with the philosophy of science, when it is oriented to the knowledge of essences. Its immediate object is constituted by the border problems of the sciences, for example, what is life? and the purpose is to introduce the man in the realm of the metaphysical.
In the nature of sympathy (1913), used the method of Husserl of phenomenological description detailed social emotions that relate to humans with each other, especially love and hatred. Based on the reduced fenomenolifica husserlian concept, Scheler distinguished the essences of the intangible, which led to the affirmation of the independence of the immortal and eternal values. This title was followed by his most famous formalism in ethics and theory of material values (1913), a treatise in two volumes of ethics where criticizes the formal ethical approach of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant and change it for a study of the specific values as presented in a direct way to the conscience.
Converted to Catholicism in 1920, wrote of the eternal in man (1921) justifying his conversion and after a study of the sociology of knowledge, Die Wissensformen und die Gesellschaft (forms of knowledge and society, 1926).
He rejected Catholicism and developed a philosophy, based on the science, in which all abstract knowledge and religious values are considered sublimations of the basic human instincts, in his latest book, the position of man in the cosmos (1928).
Max Scheler died in Frankfurt am Main on May 19, 1928.