Andrés De Santa Cruz… Anaxagoras… Mikhail Gorbachev… José Joaquín Fernández De Lizardi… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Andrés Santa Cruz - Andrés de Santa Cruz
  2. Biography of Anaxagoras
  3. Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev
  4. Biography of José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi

Biography of Andrés Santa Cruz - Andrés de Santa Cruz

(1792/11/30 - 1865/09/25)

Andrés Santa Cruz
Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana
Military and Bolivian politician, President of the Government Council (1826-1827), (1829-1839) Republic and Supreme protector of the de Confederation (1836-1839)
He was born on November 30, 1792 in La Paz, Alto Peru (today Bolivia).
He claimed to be descendant, matrilineal, of Royal inca but he enlisted in the Royalist Army at the beginning of the wars of emancipation of the Spanish domain although it wasn't passed to the ranks of the independence army of José de San Martín participated in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho, who originated the independence of Bolivia and Peru.
In the year 1826 Bolívar named him in charge of the Government as well as Acting President of Bolivia, resulting chosen in 18He pacified and he reunited the country, providing education but with dictatorial methods and material progress.
In 1836 he became Supreme protector of the Confederation de, following the integration of the two States through the stabilizing work that had taken place in Bolivia, but also to its interference in Peru, which encouraged intrigue that contributed to the disorder in the country when it invaded in 1835, naming 'guard'.
The unification was perceived as a threat by Argentina and Chile, which triggered the war of restoration, in which Santa Cruz was defeated at the battle of Yungay (1839).
After the end of the Confederacy, he embarked with heading to Ecuador, where he remained until 1844, year in which was trying to enter Bolivia being arrested and confined to Chillán.
Thanks to the British intervention Andrés Santa Cruz obtained freedom and went to Europe dying on September 25, 1865, in Versailles, France.

Biography of Anaxagoras

(Unknown - Unknown)

Greek philosopher
He was born in 500 BC in Clazomenae (near the present Izmir, Turkey).
It was the first thinker to settle (c. 480) in Athens. Among his students were the Greek statesman Pericles, the Greek playwright Euripides, and it is believed than also Socrates.
He explained his philosophy in the work Peri physeos, but only some fragments of their books have survived. He maintained that all the matter had existed as early as atoms or molecules; that these atoms, many to infinity and infinitesimally small, had existed from all eternity; and the order that emerged at the beginning of this infinite chaos of tiny atoms was effect of the action of an eternal intelligence (nous). His doctrine of the nous was adopted by Aristotle, and their interpretation on the atoms paved the way for the philosopher Democritus atomic theory.
He taught in Athens for nearly thirty years, and was imprisoned him accused of IMPIETY by suggesting that the Sun was a hot stone and the moon came from the Earth. He managed to escape and moved to Ionia (in Asia minor) and settled at Lampsacus (a colony of Miletus), where he died in 428 BC.

Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev

(1931/03/02 - Unknown)

Mikhail Gorbachev
Russian politician
He was born on March 2, 1931 in Privolnoie, near Stavropol (Russia).
Her father, Sergey Andreyevich Gorbachov, was a veteran of World War II who worked with harvesters; his mother, María Panteleyevna Gopkalo, worked on a collective farm. It was mainly by his maternal grandparents. His family had origin Russian-Ukrainian being formed by immigrants from Voronezh and Chernigov. As a child he experienced the Soviet famine of 1932-19Almost half of the population of his hometown, Privolnoie, died of hunger, including three of his uncles. Two grandparents were arrested on trumped up charges in the 1930's; his paternal grandfather Andrey Moiseyevich Gorbachov was sent to exile in Siberia.
At the age of fifteen he studied while working at a station of tractors. He studied law at Moscow State University. In 1952 he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Returning to Stavropol, amounts in the regional hierarchy of the party to get the address of the Secretary of Agriculture of the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1978.
He moved to Moscow, where he was protected from Yuri Andropov, whose influence enabled him in 1980 to be full membership in the Politburo. When Andropov in 1982 became Soviet leader, Gorbachev strengthened its pre-eminent political position. Andropov died in 1984, and he dealt with the direction of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Politburo during the brief tenure of Konstantin u. Chernenko. To the death in 1985, he became general Secretary of the CPSU. Three years later, he assumed the position of President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
Between 1985 and 1990, sought to reform Soviet society by introducing the "Perestroika" (in Russian: restructuring) of the economy and "Glasnost" (in Russian: transparency) in political and Cultural Affairs. This reform included the internal democratization of the party, the constitutional amendment to allow the multi-party system and the conversion of the country a Republic. In foreign policy, withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan, normalized relations with China, with the President of the United States Ronald Reagan and George Bush signed a series of agreements on arms control, as well as collaborate with the effort led by the United States to expel Iraq from Kuwait during the Persian Gulf war. He participated in the conclusion of the cold war, in addition to the unification of Germany. This acts obtained in October 1990 Nobel Prize of peace.
In March he was appointed by the Congress of deputies of the people President of the USSR. In 1991, as the Soviet economy would deteriorate, it faced pressure from the Communists of the hard-liners, reformists and nationalist and secessionist forces seeking the independence of their republics. Supporters of hard-liners provoked a coup d ' état in August, leaving Gorbachev under house arrest, but after three days the reformists brought him back to power. Then he left his post of general Secretary of the CPSU and suspended the activities of the party. Nationalist forces got more power after allowing that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent republics. In December 1991, the USSR voted its dissolution, leading him to resign as President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
It established a critique against the policy of the Government of Borís Yeltsin. It was a in favor of a slower economic reform and the creation of a new Confederate union that replaced the community of independent States (CIS). In September 1992 he refused to appear before the Constitutional Court of Russia to treat on the prohibition of the CPSU imposed by President Borís Yeltsin. The Government banned from travelling abroad if it was not before the Court, but this ban was lifted after provoking a wide international protest.
In June 1992 it officially expelled from the CPSU accused of having contributed to his downfall. He left for the United States and Japan, where he gave several lectures, and worked on a book about the disappearance of the Soviet Union. In March 1996 he presented presidential of the Russian Federation, but almost no support. In Western circles, and even in the streets was a man respected, loved and even popular. In 2008 his return to politics with the independent Democratic Party of Russia.
Married to Raísa Gorbachova from 1953 until he died of leukemia in 19They were parents of Irina Mihailovna Virganskaya.

Biography of José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi

(10/12/1776 - 1827/06/21)

José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi
Mexican writer
He was born in 10 December 1776 in City of Mexico.
He spent his childhood in Tepotzotlán, where his father was the medicine. He studied philosophy.
In 1816, he began writing novels and some plays. In 1811, the "Diario de México", publishes its "satirical Peñas", one of these articles is incarcerated, by order of the Viceroy Venegas. In 1812, he began to publish "the Mexican thinker", title which will also use as a pseudonym. In 1821 they return him to jail because of the dialogue "Chamorro and Dominguez", and in 1823, his attacks are church excommunication.
Works: "periquillo Sarniento" (1816), "sad nights and happy day", "La Quijotita and her cousin" (1819), "Don Catrín the show-off" (1825) etc.
José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi died in the city of Mexico on June 21, 18The epitaph composed by himself and that should be written on his tombstone says: "Here lies the Mexican thinker, who did what she could for their country".