Edwin Herbert Land… Edwin Hubble… Elizabeth Blackwell… Emil Adolf Behring… Scientists › Multiposts

Biographies of Famous Scientists

Biographies of Famous Scientists, his life and achievements

Biographies of Famous Scientists:

  1. Who is Edwin Herbert Land: Biography
  2. Who is Edwin Hubble: Biography
  3. Who is Elizabeth Blackwell: Biography
  4. Who is Emil Adolf Behring: Biography
  5. Who is Emil Fischer: Biography
  6. Who is Emil Kraepelin: Biography
  7. Who is Emile Berliner: Biography
  8. Who is Enrico Fermi: Biography
  9. Who is Ernesto Illy: Biography
  10. Who is Ernst Haeckel: Biography
  11. Who is Ernst Ising: Biography
  12. Who is Ernst Mach: Biography
  13. Who is Ernst Mayr: Biography
  14. Who is Ernst Werner von Siemens: Biography
  15. Who is Erwin Chargaff: Biography
  16. Who is Erwin Schrödinger: Biography
  17. Who is Euclid: Biography

Who is Edwin Herbert Land: Biography

Photography is a field where a lot of great minds come together to come up with one technological breakthrough after another. One man who had a lot to offer to the field of photography is Edwin Herbert Land. If you have ever taken a snapshot with a Polaroid camera or if you have polaroid pictures in your room, then he is the man you have to thank.

Who is he?

Edwin Herbert Land was as American scientist and inventor and he is best known for being one of the co-founders of Polaroid Corporation. He was responsible for a lot of photography-related inventions such inexpensive filters that polarized light, his retinex theory for color vision, and his practical system for in-camera instant photos.
His Polaroid instant camera, which went on sale in late 1948, made it possible for a picture to be taken and developed in just 60 seconds or even less.

His Early Life

Edwin Land was born to Martha and Harry Land in Bridgeport, Connecticut where his parents owned a scrap yard. Edwin was of Eastern European Jewish descent by way of both of his parents, and he attended the Norwich Free Academy located in Norwich, Connecticut. It was a semi-private high school where he graduated in 19As a matter of fact, the very library from his school was named after him after he died since it was funded by grants given by his family members.
After high school, he went on to Harvard where he studied chemistry but after he finished his freshman year, he left his school and went to New York City instead. It was in New York City that he invented the very first cheap filters that had the ability to polarize light; the Polaroid film. Given that he wasn’t affiliated with any educational centers at the time he didn’t have the tools necessary for the project and needless to say it was rather difficult for him to come up with the filters.
What he did was he sneaked into the Columbia University laboratories during late hours so he could have use of their lab equipment. He also went to the New York City Public library to scour scientific literature for works that touched on polarizing materials and substances. He had his “eureka” moment when he realized that instead of working to grow a large-scale crystal made of a polarizing substance , it was easier for him to make a film that contained millions of micron-sized crystals instead. These crystals could then be coaxed to align with each other.
After he developed that polarizing film, he went back to Harvard University but he didn’t quite finish his studies nor get his degree. Perhaps the problem was that as soon as he found a certain solution to a problem, he lost all interest to write down his findings or find a way to prove his vision to other parties concerned. His instructor had to prod his wife to get answers for his homework problems. She would then take it upon herself to write the answers so he could submit it and receive credit.

His Company

It was in the year 1932 that he put up the Land-Wheelwright laboratories with his physics instructor from Harvard; a man named George Wheelwright. The lab was put up so they could commercialize the polarizing technology that he came up with. Wheelwright came from a family that had money and he agreed to put up the funds for the business venture. After some number of early successes with coming up with polarizing filters for shades and photo filters, their lab received funding from investors from Wall Street so they could expand their business.
The larger company was given the name “Polaroid Corporation” 5 years after in the year 1937.
Land didn’t rest on his laurels through because he went on to make further developments to his products and came up with sheet polarizers which he placed under the Polaroid trademark. Given that the initial application for his product was for use in sunglasses and scientific work, he found other uses for it. Pretty soon, he was using it for things like color animation, glasses in full-color 3D movies, controlling light brightness through windows, a component for LCDs, and so much more.
During WWII, he worked in many military projects and came up with dark-adapt goggles, passively guided smart bombs, and target finders. He also came up with the vectograph which was a special stereoscopic viewing system which revealed the enemy even if they were camouflaged.
On February 21, 1947, he came up with an instant camera and a related film. He called it the “Land Camera” and it went on sale commercially just two years after it was invented. The Polaroid company originally came out with just 60 of the cameras and 57 units were put up for sale at Jordan Marsh in Boston. They thought people wouldn’t go for it and they’d have enough left in stock so they could come up with a second batch but they were wrong; all camera units were sold on just the first day.
During his years with the company, he was quite notorious for coming up with marathon research sessions. When Land came up with an idea, he wouldn’t stop experimenting and brainstorming until he had a working solution. In fact, he would forget to eat if food wasn’t brought to him and he was reminded to eat. As the company grew, he had teams and teams of assistants working different shifts right by his side. As one team wore out, another was brought in so he could work uninterrupted. That was how much of an obsessive worker he was.

His Death

Edwin H. Land bid farewell to the world on March 1, 1991 in Cambridge, MA. He lived to the ripe old age of 81 and upon his death, his trusted personal assistant got rid of all his personal papers and his notes. His body was laid to rest at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge as well.

Who is Edwin Hubble: Biography

Edwin Hubble was an American astronomer who is known for playing a vital role in the development of extragalactic astronomy. Hubble substantiated the existence of galaxies other than the Milky Way in 1925 at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society. He is widely regarded as the most influential observational cosmologist of the 20th century.

Early Life and Education:

Born in 1889 at Marshfield, a small city in Webster County, Missouri, Edwin Powell Hubble was a bright boy since his childhood days. He used to be a great athlete in school. After studying mathematics and astronomy at Chicago University, he received a Rhodes Scholarship. He studied law at Oxford University and became a high-school teacher.
After a few months, he dumped both teaching and law, and realized that he can’t live without astronomy, his first love. After doing one year service for army in the First World War, Hubble secured a job at the Mount Wilson Observatory In California. There, he had access to a very expensive and world’s largest Newtonian telescope with a mirror 100 inches (2.5 m) in diameter.

Contributions and Achievements:

Hubble developed an interest in “nebulae”; cloudy objects in the sky during night. He made an excellent observation that these clouds were not entirely made up of clouds of gas, but also consisted of clouds of stars, usually arranged in spirals.
It was revealed in in 1920 that the Sun was part of the Milky Way or the Galaxy; a vast group of stars. This made Hubble wonder if the nebulae were also a part of this group or not. After much research, he was able to demonstrate that the Universe was something much bigger than the imagination of any astronomer can comprehend.
Hubble had captured photographed hundreds of nebulae, and by 1924, declared that several of these consisted of stars and could be called galaxies. He categorized the galaxies into different types according to the structure of their spirals, something that was later proved to be wrong. While studying the constellation of Andromeda, the largest visible galaxy in the sky, he found out that it contained a variable star. Hubble concluded the Andromeda nebula was much distant to earth as compared to any other known star, making it outside the Milky Way galaxy. The discovery made him world-famous and proved the concept of “single galaxy universe” wrong.
This landmark discovery was followed by the findings of more Cepheid variables in other nebulae and Hubble successfully measured their distances. To his surprise, they were even more distant than the Andromeda nebula. With these conclusions, he demonstrated that the universe was much, much bigger.
Hubble discovered the asteroid 1373 Cincinnati in 19His famous book The Observational Approach to Cosmology and The Realm of the Nebulae was also published around the same time.

Later Life and Death:

Edwin Hubble spent much of his later life trying to prove astronomy as a field of physics.
He died on September 28, 1953 of a stroke in San Marino, California. He was 63 years old.

Who is Elizabeth Blackwell: Biography

Early Life:

Elizabeth Blackwell born on 3rd February 1821, was the first female doctor in the United States. She was the first openly identified woman to graduate from medical school, a pioneer in educating women in medicine in the United States, and was prominent in the emerging women’s rights movement.
Talking about Elizabeth’s educational life, she was rejected by all the leading schools to which she applied and almost all the other schools as well. When her application arrived at Geneva Medical College at Geneva, New York, the administration asked the students to decide whether to admit her or not. The students, reportedly believing it to be only a practical joke, approved her admission.
At first, she was even kept from classroom medical demonstrations, as unsuitable for a woman but very soon the students started getting impressed by her ability and persistence. Finally she graduated first in her class in 1849, becoming the first woman doctor of medicine in the modern era. She worked in clinics in London and Paris for two years, and studied midwifery at La Maternité where she contracted “purulent opthalmia” from a young patient. When Blackwell lost sight in one eye, she returned to New York City in 1851, giving up her dream of becoming a surgeon.
After returning to New York City, she applied for several positions as a physician, but was rejected because she was a woman. Blackwell then established a private practice in a rented room, where her sister Emily, who had also pursued a medical career, soon joined her. Their modest dispensary later became the New York Infirmary and College for Women, operated by and for women. Dr. Blackwell also continued to fight for the admission of women to medical schools. In the 1860s she organized a unit of female field doctors during the Civil War where Northern forces fought against those of the South over, among other things, slavery and secession.

Contributions and Achievements:

Dr. Blackwell did not give up and continued her efforts to open the medical profession to women. In 1857, Blackwell along with her sister Emily founded their own infirmary, named the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children. During the American Civil War, Blackwell trained many women to be nurses and sent them to the Union Army. Many women were interested and received training at this time. Her articles and her autobiography also attracted widespread attention and inspired many women.
She also began to see women and children in her home. As she developed her practice, she also wrote lectures on health, which she published in 1852 as The Laws of Life, with Special Reference to the Physical Education of Girls.
Blackwell was an early outspoken opponent of circumcision and in said that “Parents should be warned that this ugly mutilation of their children involves serious danger, both to their physical and moral health. She was a proponent of women’s rights and pro-life. Her female education guide was published in Spain, as was her autobiography. Blackwell also had ties to the women’s rights movement from its earliest days. She was proudly proclaimed as a pioneer for women in medicine as early as the Adjourned Convention in Rochester, New York in, two weeks after the First Woman’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls.
In 1856, she adopted Katherine “Kitty” Barry, an orphan of Irish origin, who was her companion for the rest of her life.

Later Life:

In 1907 Blackwell was injured in a fall from which she never fully recovered. She died on 31 May 1910 at her home in Hastings in Sussex after a stroke. She was buried in June 1910 in Saint Mun’s churchyard at Kilmun a place she loved in Argyllshire, in the Highlands of Scotland.

Who is Emil Adolf Behring: Biography

There have been many men bestowed with the Nobel Prize in the past generations and usually for work that proved to be significant for humanity and society. Emil Adolf von Behring made such a contribution and was rightly given the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 19He was a brilliant man and made amazing discoveries in the field of medicine. He might have lived a hundred years ago but many of his discoveries prove useful up until today.

His Early Life

Emil Adolf Behring was born on 15 March at Hansdorf, Germany. He was the eldest son of a schoolmaster from his second wife who had a total of 13 children. He went to attend university but with that many children the family had a difficult time paying for his university fees. So he moved on to attend the well-known Armey Medical College at Berlin. This gave him a way to study but it also meant that he had an obligation to stay in military service for some years once he had received his medical degree which was in 1878.
He married Else Spinola in 18She was the daughter of the Charite Director at Berlin and they had 7 children. Emil Adolf von Behring died on 31 March 1917.

His Career

Two years after he got his degree, he went on to pass the State Examination and was sent to Poland in Wohlau and Posen. He had a lot of practical work to do while he was in Poland but he also made sure that he made time to study problems that concerned septic diseases. He did his studies at the Chemical Department of the Experimental Station. From 1881-83, he had the chance to carry out investigations on iodoform and what it really does. He stated that iodoform didn’t kill microbes as was the popular belief but it did neutralize poisons given off by microbes and acted as an antitoxic.
The very first publication he made of his findings were published in 18The governing body that was in charge of military health were very interested in preventing and combatting epidemics so once they were made aware of Behring’s abilities, they took action. They sent Behring to C. Binz, a pharmacologist, so he could undergo even more training especially with experimental methods. A few years after that, in 1888, the same governing body asked him to go back to Berlin where he could work under Robert Koch at the Institute of Hygiene. You would think he was upset at having to leave C. Binz but he was very agreeable to the transfer.
He worked with Koch for several years at the institute but moved to follow Koch when the latter transferred to the Institute for Infectious Diseases. The move with Kick not only made Behring closer to Koch but also gave him the chance to work with another great man, P. Ehrlich. P. Ehrlich joined them in 1890 and was part of the team of brilliant minds that Koch formed around him. In the year 1894, Behring worked as a Professor of Hygiene at Halle and a year after that he made a move to take the same position at Marburg.
Most of Behring’s most important research were at par with such ground-breaking work of men like Koch, Loffler, Roux, Yersin, Pasteur etc. and it cannot be denied that Behring’s work, along with the work of other great men, have contributed a lot to the modern world and even makes up a significant amount of its foundations concerning bacterial diseases. Behring though, is chiefly remembered for the work he conducted on tuberculosis and diphtheria.
While the other great men were hard at work with their pursuits, Behring was busy observing iodoform and what it did. He tried to figure out whether a disinfection of the living organism might be taken if animals were injected with the material that was previously treated with other kinds of disinfectants. It is important to note that nearly all of the experiments were performed with the tetanus bacilli and diphtheria. His works paved the way for new a type of therapy for the two diseases. In 1890, Behring worked with S. Kitasato and came up with studies on sterilised diphtheria or tetanus brothcultures. They published the study where they stated that when injected in animals, their bodies actually produced substances that neutralized toxins produced by the bacilli. They called the substances “antitoxins.”
They also showed that the antitoxins that were produced by one animal could be removed and used to immunize other animals. Their studies also showed that the antitoxins taken from one animal could remedy symptoms of diphtheria in other animals. This was a massive breakthrough that was later confirmed by other scientists.
A couple of years before that, Behring worked with F. Wernicke and they discovered that when animals were injected with diphtheria antitoxin they could be made immune to diphtheria. Theobald Smith suggested in 1907 that such toxin/antitoxin cocktails may be used on people to make them immune against diseases. However, it was Behring himself who announced in 1913 that he was producing such a mixture and he did the work that modified and refined the toxin/antitoxin mix that has banished diphtheria to the recesses of man’s mind. Behring was not afraid to get down and dirty and was actively involved in the creation of the toxin/antitoxin mix that he saw as the key to doing away with diphtheria for good. He saw this as the crowning glory of his life’s work.

His Later Years

Behring’s health took a turn for the worse in 1901 and this prevented him from taking part in regular lectures. Seeing as he could no longer teach, he dedicated himself to studying tuberculosis instead. A commercial worker helped him build a lab in Marburg so he could come up with the necessary findings and vaccine. He also founded the Behringwerke which made vaccines and sera for diseases. Needless to say, his work vaccines and sera made him a rather wealthy man. He bought a large estate in Marburg and kept lots of cattle which he used as lab rats.

Who is Emil Fischer: Biography

Emil Hermann Fischer, more commonly known as Emil Fischer, was an eminent German chemist. He received the 1902 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his influential research regarding the purines and the carbohydrates.

Early Life and Education:

Born in Euskirchen near Bonn, Germany in 1852, Emil Fischer’s father, Lorenz Fischer, was a local businessman who wanted his son to become a chemist. Emil Fischer started attending the University at Bonn in 1871, where took the classes of Rudolf Clausius and August Kekule. In 1874, he received his doctorate from the University of Strasbourg under Adolph von Baeyer.

Contributions and Achievements:

Fischer also assisted Baeyer in his research laboratory. He accompanied Baeyer to Munich in 1875, becoming a Privatdozent in 1878, and an assistant professor in 18Three years later, he assumed the position of Professor and Director of the Chemistry Institute at Erlangen in 18Fischer was also a successor to A. W. von Hofmann, as a director of the Chemistry Institute of Berlin.
Following his stay at Baeyer’s laboratory, Fischer implemented the classical chemical methods into organic chemistry, in an effort to demonstrate the structure of biological compounds for instance sugars, proteins and purines. He also worked on the organic synthesis of (+) glucose.
Fischer had three sons; two of whom became medical doctors and died as soldiers during World War I. Hermann Fischer, his third son, became a famous biochemist.

Later Life and Death:

Emil Fischer studied the enzymes and the chemical substances in the lichens in his later years. He formulated a “Lock and Key Model” in 1890 for the visualization of the substrate and enzyme interaction. Fischer died in Berlin on July 15, 19He was 66 years old.

Who is Emil Kraepelin: Biography

Emil Kraepelin was a German psychiatrist who is widely considered to be the founder of modern psychiatry and psychopharmacology. He suggested that the primary origin of psychiatric disease was related to biological and genetic malfunction. Kraepelin also devised a classification system for mental illness that helped shape later classifications.

Early Life and Education:

Born in 1856 in Germany, Emil Kraepelin chose a career in psychiatry when he was only 18 years old. He started studying the influence of acute medical diseases on psychiatric unwellness when he was a third-year medical student. After finishing his medical training in Wurzburg, Germany, he took a position at the Munich Clinic. There, he had a good opportunity to explore brain anatomy, memory and learning.
Kraepelin was awarded his first chairmanship at the age of 30 years in Dorpat.

Contributions and Achievements:

Kraepelin’s differentiation between “dementia praecox” (now schizophrenia) and “manic—depression” (bipolar disorder) was a turning point in the history of psychiatry. He held the belief that biological and genetic disorders cause psychiatric illnesses. He vocally rejected the conflicting approach of Sigmund Freud, who considered and treated mental disorders as secondary to psychological factors.
Kraepelin suggested that the classification of psychiatric diseases should be based on common patterns of symptoms, instead of the mere similarity of symptoms. After his extensive observation of patients, he formulated the outcome, criteria of course and prognosis of mental illness.
Kraepelin’s fundamental concepts on the etiology and diagnosis of psychiatric disorders laid the groundwork for every major diagnostic system of today, particularly the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (1CD) system and the American Psychiatrics Association’s DSM-IV.

Later Life and Death:

The last edition of Emil Kraepelin’s Textbook of Psychiatry was made public in 1927, roughly one year after his death in 19It comprised of four volumes and was ten times bigger as compared to the first edition of 1883.

Who is Emile Berliner: Biography

Emile Berliner (formally known as Emil Berliner) was an inventor best known for developing the disc record gramophone. He founded The Berliner Gramophone Company in 1895, The Gramophone Company in London, England, Deutsche Gramophone in Hanover, Germany and Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada.

Early Life and Career:

Emile Berliner was born in Hanover, Germany on the 20th of May 18He was one of thirteen children born to Samuel and Sarah Berliner. Following a few years of school in Hanover, Berliner was sent to Wolfenbuttel from which he graduated in 1865 at the age of fourteen. Berliner then spent several years there after doing odd jobs in Hanover to help support the large Berliner family. He migrated to the United States of America in 1870, where he lived in Washington, D.C. and officially turned a citizen in 18He became interested in the new audio technology of the telephone and phonograph, and invented an improved telephone transmitter. In 1886 Berliner began experimenting with methods of sound recording. He was granted his first patent for what he called the “gramophone” in 18Berliner’s other inventions include a new type of loom for mass-production of cloth; an acoustic tile and an early version of the helicopter.
Berliner started to compose as well. He expressed his love for America and the opportunities it had afforded him in a patriotic song which became a smash hit of its day: The Columbian Anthem- a song debuted in Washington on Washington’s Birthday at the 1897 national council of the Daughters of the American Revolution. As a composition it ranks easily with the best national hymns ever written.
Berliner turned his attention to the violin. It is well known that antique violins are consistently more brilliant over their entire range than new instruments. Berliner determined that the new instrument did not vibrate freely because the fibers of the wood under the bridge took much time to adjust to the uneven pressures transmitted by the strings through the bridge to the instruments body.
In 1909 he donated funds for an infirmary building at the Starmont Tuberculosis Sanitarium in Washington Grove, Maryland, dedicated to the memory of his father. Berliner was president of the Washington Tuberculosis Association for some years. In 1920 Berliner endowed a silver cup as an annual award by the Tuberculosis Association to the city whose school children were most engaged in his health crusade.
In 1899, Berliner wrote a book, Conclusions that speaks of his agnostic ideas on religion and philosophy.
Berliner was also awarded the Franklin Institute’s John Scott Medal in 1897, and later the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1913 and the Franklin Medal in 1929.


Emile Berliner died of a heart attack at the age of 78 and is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, D.C. Through his innovations and inventions, he left invaluable legacies in communications, acoustics, and aeronautics to America and to the rest of the world.

Who is Enrico Fermi: Biography

Enrico Fermi, an Italian physicist, is well-known for his achievements in both theoretical and experimental physics. This is an exceptional achievement in a period where scientific accomplishments have focused on one aspect or the other. He is mainly remembered for his work on the advancement of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938 for “his discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for the discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons.”

Early Years and Career:

Enrico Fermi was born in Rome, Italy on 29th September, 19His father, Alberto Fermi was a Chief Inspector of the Ministry of Communications, and his mother, Ida de Gattis was a school teacher. He received his early education from a local grammar school and at an early age developed a great interest in physics and mathematics. Fermi’s aptitude for physics and mathematics was highly encouraged by Adolfo Amidei, one of his father’s friends, who gave him several books on physics and mathematics, which he read and understood quickly.
In 1918, Fermi joined the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa. Here he spent four years and gained a doctor’s degree in physics in 1922, with Professor Puccianti. A year later he was awarded a scholarship from the Italian Government and spent few months with Professor Max Born in Göttingen. With a Rockefeller Fellowship, in 1924, he moved to Leyden to work with P. Ehrenfest. The same year he returned to Italy where he served for two years as a Lecturer in Mathematical Physics and Mechanics at the University of Florence. From 1927 to 1938, Fermi served as the Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Rome. During 1939, he was employed as the Professor of Physics at Columbia University, N.Y until 19Later on in 1946, accepted a professorship at the Institute for Nuclear Studies at the University of Chicago, a position which he held till his death.

Contributions and Achievements:

In 1926, Fermi discovered the statistical laws, nowadays known as the Fermi statistics.
It was during his time in Paris, Fermi and his team marked major contributions to many practical and theoretical aspects of physics. In 1934, while at the University of Rome, Fermi carried out his experiments where he bombarded a variety of elements with neutrons and discovered that slow moving neutrons were particularly effective in producing radioactive atoms. Not realizing he had split the atom, Fermi told people about what he thought were elements beyond uranium. In 1938, Fermi won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on nuclear processes.
He continued to conduct nuclear fission experiments at Columbia University. In 1940, Fermi and his team proved that absorption of a neutron by a uranium nucleus can cause the nucleus to split into two nearly equal parts, releasing numerous neutrons and huge amounts of energy. This was the first nuclear chain reaction. Later in 1944 this work was carried forward to New Mexico, and on July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was detonated at Alamogordo Air Base.


Fermi’s historic accomplishments caused him to be recognized as one of the great scientists of the 20th century. He died of cancer at the University of Chicago on 28 November 1954.

Who is Ernesto Illy: Biography

Coffee geeks around the world who love their coffee will surely want to know about a man named Ernesto Illy. With the “Illy” name advertised in coffee shops all over the world, it pays to know more about the man behind the name and consider what he did for coffee. All over the world, some 5 million people enjoy Illy cups of coffee which are the fruits of this man’s passion for coffee and knowledge in chemistry.

Who is Ernesto Illy?

Dr. Ernesto Illy was a businessman and a food chemist. He was the chairman of the world-famous Illycaffe S.p.A. up until the year 20He was born on 18 July 1925 and was known as a giant in the coffee and espresso world. He was a widely respected figure in the coffee business and was responsible for spearheading the research conducted by Illy on the quality of espresso and coffee.

His Early Life and Work

Dr. Ernesto Illy was born in Trieste and is the son of Hungarian-Italian Francesco Illy who was not only a World War I officer but also a chocolate-maker. In 1933, the elder Illy came up with Illeta or the modern espresso-maker. Not only did he come up with a brilliant machine that made excellent coffee the expectation and not the exception, but he also came up with the “pressurization” method of preserving coffee. He then went on to put up a coffee business which is what prompted Ernesto Illy’s love for coffee.
In the year 1947, Ernesto went to the University of Bologna to study chemistry and joined the coffee company founded by his father immediately after he graduated in 19Armed with his degree in chemistry, Ernesto set out to put up the first ever lab for the company wherein he put his chemistry degree to use and dedicated it to the chemistry of coffee. Not only did he manage the laboratory but he also worked with academic, scientific and corporate institutions in his studies. Ernesto Illy had a deep love for coffee and had a keen interest in coming up with new ways to make the manufacturing process easier and more efficient. In fact, he was able to come up with a high-tech coffee manufacturing process which specialized in the production of espresso coffee. In 1965, the company opened its Via Flavia manufacturing facility in Trieste and their methods and facilities have made it one of the best low-smoke, high-volume coffee plants in the world.
For his work with the Illy coffee company, he quickly rose to the top of the company and he even served as the chairman from the year 1963 to 20In the year 1974, under the chairmanship of Dr. Illy, the coffee company came out with the very first ever coffee pod. They called it the E.S.E. or the Easy Serving Espresso and these genius little pods made it possible for people to prepare the most beautiful espresso anywhere and anytime they wanted. The deep love for espresso and the desire to allow people to enjoy it meant that Dr. Ernesto Illy’s company came up with a product that was soon to take over the world and was soon copied by other coffee companies. In the year 1988, Dr. Ernesto Illy again put his expertise and his passion to work and it resulted in a system that made use of computers to scan each and every bean that passed through their facility and any beans that did not meet the Illy standards are then eliminated. This is one of the reasons why their coffee is so much more expensive than others – their goal is perfect beans, zero defects. This system is patented and remains exclusive to the Illy company until today.
He then became the honorary chairman as his advanced age made it impossible for him to keep up with the tasks the position required. Ernesto Illy played a big role on establishing the Association of Scientific Internationale pour le Café.

His Views on Coffee

As a scientist, Dr. Illy devoted most of his life into the promotion of coffee quality and he was also a spokesman of a tribe of scientists that believe coffee was given a raw deal as a beverage with health benefits. In fact, he states that drinking good coffee has many health benefits and that to miss coffee is to miss life itself. In an interview he granted in November 2005, 3 years before his death, he suggested that it is actually good for people to drink 3 to 5 cups of regular coffee a day and each cup should have about 100 mg of coffee per cup.
In the same interview, Dr. Illy stated that perhaps his greatest contribution to the world of coffee has been his job to apply science to improve the overall quality of coffee. After all, it really does depend on a long chain of factors to come up with coffee quality that is off the charts. He confessed that the process starts from the moment he decides where to put a plant since his studies have shown a strong link between the genome of the coffee plant and the environment it has been placed.

His Personal Life

Ernesto Illy died on 3 February 2008 in Trieste and the family declined to name the cause of death. He and his wife Anna Rossi had 4 children – 3 sons and 1 daughter. The first son, Andrea, born in 1964 is now the person responsible for the Illy company and his other children, Anna and Ricardo are board members of the company. Francesco, their third son, is also part of the business.


For all his works on coffee, it goes without saying that Dr. Ernesto Illy got a lot of awards. Some of them include:
• Anacafè member of the order, Flor del Cafè (2004) (Guatemala)
• Cavaliere del Lavoro of Italy (Knight of Industry) (1994)
• Centromarca brand organization (president) (1996)
• International Coffee Organization (chairman of the promotion committee) (2002) (London)
• Monte Carmelo county (honorary citizenship, 2002) (Brazil)
• Honorary doctorates and Master’s degrees (2005)

Who is Ernst Haeckel: Biography

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – 1919) was a philosopher, professor, physician, naturalist, biologist and artist.

Early Life and Contributions:

After receiving a degree in medicine in 1857, Haeckel obtained a doctorate in zoology from the University of Jena and taught zoology there. Haeckel’s contributions to zoological science were a mixture of sound research and assumptions often with insufficient evidence. He was a renowned figure whose popularity with the public was substantially higher than it was with many of his scientific peers.


Although best known for the famous statement “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”, he also invented many words commonly used by biologists today, such as phylum, phylogeny, and ecology. On the other hand, Haeckel also stated that “politics is applied biology”, a quote used by Nazi propagandists. The Nazi party, rather unfortunately, used not only Haeckel’s quotes, but also Haeckel’s justifications for racism, nationalism and social Darwinism.
Haeckel also proposed the idea that all multicellular animals derived from a theoretical two-layered (ectoderm and endoderm) animal, the Gastraea, a theory that provoked much discussion. He engaged in much valuable research on marine invertebrates, such as the radiolarians, jellyfish, calcareous sponges, and medusae, and wrote a series of monographs on these groups based largely on specimens brought back by the Challenger Expedition.
He was also the first to divide the animal kingdom into unicellular and multicellular animals. An ardent Darwinist, Haeckel made several zoological expeditions and founded the Phyletic Museum at Jena and the Ernst Haeckel Haus, which contains his books, records, and other effects.
An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species. Modern scientists and science historians have varied on the value of these diagrams but many also praised his work and creativity. Haeckel also produced artwork, much of it quite beautiful, starting with his atlas of radiolarians, published in 1862.
It has been argued that what he saw was influenced by Jugendstil, the Art Nouveau form popular in Germany at the time. Whether or not artistic style influenced Haeckel’s illustrations, his illustrations certainly influenced later art forms, including light fixtures, jewelry, furniture, and even a gateway to the Paris Word Fair in 19In 1906 the Monist League was formed at Jena with Haeckel as its president. The League held a strong commitment to social Darwinism in which man was seen as part of nature and in no way qualitatively distinct from any other organic form.
Later in his career, Haeckel produced Art Forms in Nature, a work that he published in a series of 10 installments. Designed to interest the general public in naturalism, Haeckel’s own illustrations of animals, plants and microscopic organisms were introduced. In 1913, he published a set of photographs titled Nature as an Artist, aimed at countering allegations that his illustrations could be misleading. Today, however, many scientists and science historians share the conviction that his images were often highly contrived, beautiful as they may be.
Haeckel was the first person known to use the term “First World War”. Shortly after the start of the war Haeckel wrote:
“There is no doubt that the course and character of the feared “European War” will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.”
The “European War” became known as “The Great War”, and it was not until 1931, with the beginning realization that another global war might be possible, that there is any other recorded use of the term “First World War”.
He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. His chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated art forms of nature.
Although Haeckel’s ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, and he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect but still he has been admired greatly for his work.


Haeckel died on Aug. 9, 1919, Germany, leaving behind his great inventions for others to serve as a source of inspiration.

Who is Ernst Ising: Biography

There are many great names in the field of Physics and one man that deserves to be lauded is Ernst Ising. This German physicist is most remembered for coming up with the Ising model that is considered as one of the standard models used for statistical physics. He was not only a brilliant physicist but he also happened to be a great teacher that helped hone many young and brilliant minds at Bradley University.

His Early Life

Ernst Ising was born in Cologne, Germany on 10 May 19His mother was Thekla Ising nee Lowe and his father was a merchant named Gustav Ising. His family stayed in Cologne for two years then moved to Bochum. This is where young Ernst spent most of his childhood. During Easter in 1907, he started school in Bochum and completed the Gymnasium in 19He had to stop schooling after that just so he could undergo military training but by a stroke of good fortune, World War I was over before he was ever sent on a mission. So a year after, on Easter in 1919, he went to the University of Gottingen where he studied physics and mathematics. He also continued studying at Hamburg and Bonn.

His Early Influences

It was in Hamburg where Ising met the physicist Wilhelm Lenz. He was the man who suggested that Ising could possibly turn his attention to theoretical physics. Under the tutelage of Lenz, Ising began his studies on a model of ferromagnetism in the year 1922, which eventually resulted in a dissertation. In 1924, the faculty of mathematics and natural sciences of Hamburg University accepted his dissertation. Another interesting person Ising met during his time in Hamburg was one Wolfgang Pauli – an Austrian physicist and one of the earliest pioneers of quantum physics. At the time, Pauli was at Hamburg University as he had just accepted a teaching position. Other famous personages Ising met at Hamburg University was Otto Stern – physicist and Nobel Laureate – and Walther Gerlach – another notable German physicist.
After Ising received his Ph.D., he moved to Berlin where he started work in the patent office of the AEG or the Allgemeine Elektrizitätsgesellschaft. It was a good job and he did stay for a good year but he got a feeling of dissatisfaction with the job itself and decided to pursue a career in teaching instead. He moved to the US where he worked as a teacher on a famous boarding school in Salem, near Lake Constance; he worked there for a year but went back to Berlin University in 1928 so he could begin studies on pedagogy and philosophy. Two years later, in 1930, he passed the state exams on higher education and got married on the same year. He and his wife moved to Strausberg where Ising once again got a teaching position at a school where he was a studienassessor – this was a title given to someone that holds a higher civil service post and has passed all the required examinations but is still on probation.

The Rise of Hitler

In January of 1933, Hitler came into power and in the blink of an eye, Jewish citizens in civil servant positions found themselves without jobs. Ernst Ising lost his job as a teacher and was unemployed for a year though he did held short jobs at a school for emigrant kids in Paris. In 1934, he got a new job as a teacher for Jewish children at a boarding school. It was located in Caputh which was very near Portdam and was founded by Gertrud Feiertag, who was a known progressive social educationalist. One interesting fact about this school and the position was that right next door was the summer house that belonged to one of the greatest minds of all time: Albert Einstein. When Einstein made his move to the USA in ’32, the school rented the said house to be used as additional classrooms. This meant the number of enrollees increased (also due to the fact that Jewish kids were being expelled from German public schools) and 5 years later, Ising was granted the headmaster position.

Leaving Europe

In 10 November 1938, the school where Ising worked was devastated, as part of a program to get rid of the Jewish people in Germany. In fact, in 27 January 1939, Ising was interrogated for 4 hours after he was taken by the Gestapo. He was only released after he promised that he and his wife were to depart from Germany. They travelled to Luxembourg where they would leave for the states but at that time the quota was full and so they had to stay at Luxembourg. They stayed in Luxembourg for some time and worked menial jobs as they struggled to survive.
It took two years after the war ended for Ernst and his wife to make the move to the US and in April 1947, they finally arrived in New York. He worked as a teacher at the State Teacher’s College for a year then moved on to become a Physics Professor at Bradley in 19His wife Jane also became a professor at the school. This was where he stayed until he retired in 19It wasn’t until the year 1953 that the US granted him citizenship, and then he changed his name to Ernest.

His Work and Legacy

As mentioned, he came up with the Ising model but he didn’t really fully realized how important it was until some years after he came up with it. Aside from his love for physics, his other great love was teaching and his students at Bradley recount his humor and his elaborate experiments in class. Ising himself has stated that no class is complete unless his students had laughed with him. He was a marvelous teacher and contributed a lot to the university though he never published another research paper again.

His Death

Ernest Ising lived in Peoria until he died in 19It was a day after he celebrated his 98th birthday. He was married to a German doctor he met in Berlin named Jane.

Who is Ernst Mach: Biography

Ernst Mach was a physicist. He was involved in the description and photographs of spark shock-waves. Later on he was involved in ballistic shock-waves. He described the passing of sound through a barrier caused by the compression of air in front of bullets and shells. He used “schlierenmethode” along with his son to photograph the shadow of the invisible shock waves. Ernst studies, in the field of experimental physics, concentrated on the interference, diffraction, polarization and refraction of light in different media under external influences

Early Life and Career:

Ernst Mach was born on February 18th, 1838 in Chirlitz, a part of Brno in the Czech Republic. His father was a graduate from Prague University. He was a tutor to the noble Brethon family in Zlin. Ernst was an Austrian physicist and philosopher and he is remembered for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves. As a philosopher of science, he influenced logical positivism and through his criticism of Newton, a forerunner of Einstein’s relativity. Mach received his education at home from his parents. He then entered a Gymnasium in Kremsier , where he studied for three years. In 1855, he became a student at the University of Vienna. He received his doctorate in physics in 18There he conducted studies on kinesthetic sensation, the feeling associated with movement and acceleration. Between 1873 and 1893 he developed optical and photographic techniques for the measurement of sound waves and wave propagation.
Mach also made many contributions to psychology and physiology including his anticipation of gestalt phenomena, the discovery of Mach bands, an inhibition-influenced type of visual illusion, and his discovery of a non-acoustic function of the inner ear which helped control human balance.
Mach also became well-known for his philosophy, a type of phenomenal recognition sensations as real. This position seemed incompatible with the view of atoms and molecules as external, mind-independent things. Mach was reluctance to acknowledge the reality of atoms was criticized by many as being incompatible with physics.
One of the best-known of Mach’s ideas is the so-called “Mach’s principle,” concerning the physical origin of inertia. This was never written down by Mach. However it was given a graphic verbal form, attributed by Philipp Frank to Mach himself.
Mach contributed to knowledge of perception, especially in his Beiträge zur Analyze der Empfindungen (1897; trans. C. M. Williams, The Analysis of Sensations; and the Relation of the Physical to the Psychical, 1959). He was among the first to use visually ambiguous figures as research tools, for separating what we now call it ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ processing. Mach’s views on mediating structures inspired B. F. Skinner’s strongly inductive position, which paralleled Mach’s in the field of psychology

Mach’s principal works in English

• The Science of Mechanics (1893)
• The Analysis of Sensations (1897)
• Popular Scientific Lectures (1895)
• The Principles of Physical Optics (1926)
• Knowledge and Error (1976)
• Principles of the Theory of Heat (1986)


In 1898 Mach suffered from cardiac arrest. In 1901 he retired from the University of Vienna and was appointed to the upper chamber of the Austrian parliament. On leaving Vienna in 1913 he moved to his son’s home in Vaterstetten, near Munich, where he continued writing and corresponding until his death on February 19th, 1916.

Who is Ernst Mayr: Biography

Ernst Walter Mayr, more commonly known as Ernst Mayr, was a German-born American who made decisive and groundbreaking contributions to avian taxonomy, evolution and population genetics. Widely credited as the world’s greatest evolutionary biologist in history, Mayr was fondly called the “Darwin of the 20th century”.

Early Life and Education:

Born in Kempten, Germany on July 5, 1904 to a jurist father, Ernst Mayr showed an early interest in ornithology. His father died when he was just He attended the University of Greifswald in 19Mayr acquired his doctorate in ornithology from the University of Berlin in 1926; he was only 21 years old.

Contributions and Achievements:

Mayr stayed at the university to lead expeditions to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, where he explored the variations among animals and plants on different islands. He joined the American Museum of Natural History, New York as a curator in 1932, where he wrote over 100 journal articles on the subject of bird taxonomy.
He published his famous book “Systematics and the Origin of Species” in 1942, which heavily contributed to population genetics and the evolutionary synthesis. He favored the Darwin’s evolution by natural selection rather than than Gosse’s divine creation.
Ernst Mayr approached the concept of species by saying that a species is not merely a group of morphologically closer individuals, but a group that breeds only among themselves, excluding all others. The theory of peripatric speciation by Mayr is considered a major mode of speciation in ornithology.

Later Life and Death:

In 1953 Mayr became Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology at Harvard University, retiring in 1979 as professor emeritus. He died in Bedford, Massachusetts on February 3, 20He was 100 years old.

Who is Ernst Werner von Siemens: Biography

German inventor and industrialist of the 19th century, Werner von Siemens was the pioneer of the electro industry and brought about a great technological advancement with many of his important discoveries. He earned a prominent position among the multitude of awards for achievements in science and technology.

Early Life, Education and Career:

Ernst Werner von Siemens was born at Lenthe, Hanover, Germany, on 13 December 1816, the oldest of four brothers. Siemens did not complete his schooling and joined the army to undertake training in engineering. For three years he was a pupil in the Military Academy at Berlin. In 1838 he earned his living as lieutenant in the artillery, and six years later he accepted the post of supervisor of the artillery workshops. In 1848 he had the task of defending the port of Kiel against the Danish fleet, and as commandant of Friedrichsort built the fortifications for the defense of Eckernforde harbor. The same year he was entrusted with the laying of the first telegraph line in Germany, which between Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main, and with that work his military career came to an end. His invention of the telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter, instead of using Morse code led to formation of the electrical and telecommunications company Siemens as we know today.
In 1847, Siemens accompanied by mechanic Johann Georg Halske, established Siemens & Halske, a company that manufactured and repaired telegraphs. The company built offices in Berlin, London, Paris, St. Petersburg, and other major cities, and in due course emerged as one of the major electrical manufacturing companies in Europe.
Besides the telegraph Siemens made outstanding contributions to the expansion of electrical engineering and is therefore known as the founding father of the discipline in Germany. In 1880 he designed the world’s first electric elevator. In 1866 he independently discovered the dynamo-electrical principle and developed interest in the growth of the self-excited dynamo and electric-traction. In 1867 he delivered an important paper on electric generators before the Royal Society. During late 1877 Siemens received German patent No. 2355 for an electromechanical “dynamic” or moving-coil transducer, which was adapted by A. L. Thuras and E. C. Wente for the Bell System in the late 1920s for use as a loudspeaker.
Siemens married twice in his life. His first marriage was to Mathilde Duman in 1852 and had two children, Arnold von Siemens and Georg Wilhelm von Siemens. Almost two years after the death of his first wife, he remarried Antonie Siemens, a distant cousin in 18Children from second marriage were Hertha von Siemens and Carl Friedrich von Siemens.


Werner von Siemens died on December 13, 1892, a week before his seventy-sixth birthday, at Charlottenburg, Germany.

Who is Erwin Chargaff: Biography

An Austrian biochemist and author, Erwin Chargaff is best known for “Chargaff’s Rules” which lead to the discovery of DNA’s double helix structure. He was born in Bukowina, Austria-Hungary, but today, his birthplace is referred to as Chernivtsi, Ukraine. He became an American citizen in the year 1940, and emigrated to the U.S. during the time when the Nazis were still very much active, and it was in the U.S. where he was able to come up with the discovery of thymine and adenine amounts in DNA were about the same as the amount of guanine and cystosine. This is now known as the third Chargaff rule and along with two others, more about the DNA has been known because of the biochemist’s work.

Early Years and Educational Background

On August 11, 1905, Erwin Chargaff was born in Czernowitz, in a place which used to be called Bukowina, Austria-Hungary to his father named Hermann Chargaff who worked as a banker, and Rosa Silberstein Chargaff. The First World War was at its peak during those years and his family had to move to Vienna. His father, who had owned a small bank, lost the business after the Great Inflation. Although his mother survived longer than his father, she had been a victim of the Holocaust.
He spent his high school education in Maximiliangynasium, Vienna, Austria and in the years 1924 up to 1928, he studied courses in chemistry in Vienna. Under the supervision of Fritz Feigl who is also a known chemist for his “spot analysis,” Erwin Chargaff earned his doctorate from Vienna University of Technology or Technische Universität Wien in the year 1928.
Chargaff’s education life was not limited to being educated in Vienna. He spent two years from 1928-1930 at Yale University as a Milton Campbell Research Fellow. However, he did not favour the environment there and returned to Europe after his short one-year stay as a scholar of Yale.


When he returned to Europe, he had a job where he became the assistant who was in charge of chemistry in the University of Berlin, where he also worked under the department of bacteriology and public health. He held this position from 1930 to 1933.
Erwin Chargaff came from a Jewish family and because of the new policies which were given by Adolf Hitler, Jews had been excluded to have academic positions. This caused Chargaff to resign in his teaching position in the University of Berlin.
Because of this even caused by the policy against Jews, Chargaff left Germany and travelled to France. There, he became a research associate in Paris at the Pasteur Institute. This lasted for a short duration only, from 1933-1935, and after his time at the Pasteur Institute, he went back to the United States where he would start his lifelong career that will earn him his recognition in the world of science.

Life in the United States

In 1935, Erwin Chargaff immigrated to New York and he was able to secure a position in the biochemistry department of the Columbia University where he worked as a research associate. A huge portion of his professional career was spent in this university. Just three years later, he became an assistant professor, and in 1952, a full-fledged professor.
He served as a department chair in the Columbia University from 1970-1974 and he retired as professor emeritus. After Chargaff’s retirement as the university’s professor emeritus, he moved his laboratory to Roosevelt Hospital and this was where he continued his work until the time he retired in 1992.

Scientific Contributions and Recognitions

Chargaff was able to publish several scientific papers which primarily dealt with studies concerning nucleic acids like DNA. He used chromatographic techniques in his studies, and his interest in DNA started after the identification of this molecule as the main basis of heredity. It was in 1944 when Oswald Avery had made that discovery and this had prompted Chargaff to make studies of his own.
His studies which lead to the development of the famous “Chargaff’s Rules” took long, and it was in 1950 when he was able to make the crucial elements which lead to the formation of his rules which are as follows:
First, that the number of adenine or A residues are always equal to the number of thymine or T residues;
Second, that the number of guanine or G residues are always equal to the number of cytosine or C residues;
And third, that the number of purines or A and G combined and the number of pyrimidines or T and C combined are always equal to each other (which is an obvious consequence of the first two rules).
Chargaff had also determined that the same findings hold true even if the ratio of pyrimidines and purines may differ from one kind of living organism to another. When combined with the findings of Rosalind Franklin about the diffraction studies on DNA, it was also determined how base-paring between A and T as well as G and C is what is behind the double -helix structure of the DNA and that no other combinations of these residues are possible. He explained the same findings to Francis Crick and James Watson who were then the ones who enlightened the world about the double-helix DNA structure.
Chargaff’s research had been the springboard of many biology and heredity studies. However, his studies were not limited to DNA-related concerns. He also studied lipids, plant nucleotides, inositol and amino acid metabolism, and about the enzymes responsible for blood coagulation. Despite not being credited for the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA which won a Nobel Prize, Chargaff had many other achievements such as the Pasteur Medal in 1949, Carl Neuberg Medal in 1958, Charles Leopold Mayer Prize in 1963, Heineken Prize in 1964, and the Gregor Mendel Medal in 1973 among others.
Both he and his wife Vera Broido Chargaff died in New York. He lived alone for a few years in his parkside apartment, and on the 20th of June in 2002, he died in a New York hospital at the age of 96.

Who is Erwin Schrödinger: Biography

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger, more commonly known as Erwin Schrödinger, was an Austrian physicist and theoretical biologist. One of the founders of quantum mechanics, he is known for the Schrödinger equation and his brilliant contributions to the wave theory of matter. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Paul Dirac in 1933.

Early Life and Contributions:

Erwin Schrödinger was born in Vienna, Austria in 18He actually had a Bavarian family that had settled in Vienna long ago. Exceptionally talented and highly educated, he learned almost everything, including the history of Italian painting and most of the recent theories related to theoretical physics.
He became an artillery officer in World War I. He took several positions at Stuttgart, Breslau, and Zurich from 1920 onwards. Zurich proved to be the most productive period for Schrödinger. The tremendous discovery of the Schrodinger Wave Equation took place in 19It explained how the quantum state of a physical system changes in time.
Schrödinger went to Berlin in 1927 as the successor of Max Planck. Berlin used to be a center of scientific activity, but he was soon made to leave for Oxford, from where he went to Princeton, and then got back to Austria.

Later Life and Death:

When the Anschluss was over, Erwin Schrödinger made an escape to Italy and then made it to the Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin. He worked there until his retirement in 19He continued to write several important papers. Schrödinger died of tuberculosis in 1961.
He was 73 years old. The Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics was in Vienna was named after him in 1993.

Who is Euclid: Biography

The famous Greek scientist and mathematician Euclid (300 BC) is best known as the author of the Elements, the oldest book consisting of geometrical theorems which is considered to be a standard for logical exposition.

Historical Introduction:

Not much is known aobut Euclid personally. There have been speculations whether he was a creative mathematician himself or merely collected the work of others. Much data about Euclid is recounted by Proclus, a 5th-century-AD philosopher. Euclid and Archimedes are often considered contemporaries. Euclid’s mathematical education is thought to be obtained from Plato’s pupils in Athens.
No work about geometrical theorems older than the Elements of Euclid has survived. The Elements superseded all earlier writings. This made it hard for historians to find out the earlier mathematicians whose works were could have been more significant in the development of Greek mathematics than Euclid’s. The Greek mathematician Thales is known to have discovered a number of theorems in 600 B.C. that appear in the Elements.
Eudoxus was given credit for the discovery of the method of exhaustion. Book XII of the Elements uses this method. While earlier mathematics may have been initiated by concrete problems, for instance finding out areas and volumes, by the time of Euclid mathematics had grown into an abstract construction, an intellectual occupation for philosophers as compared to scientists.

The Elements

The Elements is a collection of 13 books. Each book contains a sequence of propositions or theorems, around 10 to 100, introduced with proper definitions. For instance in Book I, 23 definitions are followed by five postulates, after which five common notions or axioms are included.

Other Contributions and Accomplishments:

Majority of the work of Euclid is known only through references by other writers. The Data is on plane geometry. The word “data” implies “things given”. The treatise consists of 94 propositions related to the kind of problem where certain data is presented about a figure and from which other data can be deduced. For instance, if a triangle has one angle given, the rectangle contained by the sides including the angle has to the area of the triangle a given ratio.
The Latin and Arabic manuscript translations of the Elements were also done, but it was not until the first printed edition, published in Venice in 14The work was very influential in Western education. The first comprehensive English translation was made in 15The most important mathematical period in England, around 1700, Greek mathematics was examined most passionately. Euclid was widely respected by all major mathematicians, including Isaac Newton.
The developing prepotency of the sciences and mathematics in the 18th and 19th centuries earned Euclid a crucial place in the curriculum of schools and universities throughout the Western world. The Elements was considered educational as a primer in logic.

Sources: Famous Scientists

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